Manual of Manifesto of Major Political Parties

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Background

This manual provides the comparative picture of sectorwise programmes in the manifestoes of key political parties of Pakistan during 2013 elections. These parties include Pakistan Peoples Party, Pakistan Muslim League-Nawaz, Pakistan Tehreek-i-Insaf, Mutahida Qaumi Movement, Awami National Party, and Pakistan Muslim League-Quaid-i-Azam. The pledged policies of these mainstram parties are given sectorwise. 



Social Sector
Party Name  
  Education Budget
PPPP • Commit 4.5% of GDP to education by the end of next term.
PML- N • Increased resources for education to reach the UNESCO target of 4% of GDP by 2018. 
PTI • Increase spending on education from 2% to 5% of GDP in 5 years
MQM • Gradually increase education expenditure from 2.2% to 5% of the GDP. 
ANP • Allocate a minimum of 6% of GDP to education.
PML-Q --
  Education Indicators
PPPP • Raise the adult literacy rate from the current 54 per cent to 85 per cent.
• Assist the provinces in achieving universal enrolment by 2018. 
PML- N • Initiate legislation to provide a road map for achieving 100% enrollment up to the middle level and 80% universal literacy and strive to meet the target of ‘Education For All (EFA)’ and MDGs related to education within the given time frame
PTI • Focus on illiterate adults in the 15-30 age brackets and provide full functional literacy to them.
MQM • Enrolment of children between the age 5 to 16 years be launched at massive scale both by the government, the civil society and especially NGOs.
ANP --
PML-Q • All efforts shall be made to enforce the fundamental right of free and compulsory education for children age 5-16 years in all provinces.
  Education In General
PPPP • Revise curriculum to remove hate, violence and references to militancy and include HR, ethics, religious tolerance and community work as well as instruction in hygiene, nutrition, reproductive health, environmental protection and sustainability.
• Initiate madrassa reforms with the help of madrassa councils to modernize their education systems. Militias/ militant activities under madrassa aegis to be disbanded.
• Create a cell within provincial education departments to monitor, coordinate and overview district-wise utilization of the education budget.
• Carry out a survey of makeshift, ‘on-paper’ and degraded educational institutions to upgrade facilities and standardize quality.
• Promote learning-centred teaching methods and the development of appropriate teaching materials, including the use of information and communication technology (ICT).
• Put in place appropriate assessment, evaluation and monitoring mechanisms for teachers and students, starting at the provincial level.
• In-depth analysis of size & character of out-of-school children to integrate them into schools/training centers.
• Diminish and then remove qualitative gap between public and private schooling. Setting up a National Education Standards Council for the provinces to coordinate their work.
• Significantly improve the quality of education, ensuring measurable learning outcomes especially in literacy, numeracy and essential life skills.
• Eliminate gender disparities through incentives for girls to enroll in school and vocational institutions.
• Prepare young people for jobs by providing educational programmes specifically tailored to the job market.
• Initiate an extended health care and nutrition programme within the school system. 
PML- N • National Education Emergency will be declared to eradicate illiteracy on war footing
• National literacy movement will be launched with volunteers from all the segments of society
• A vision 2025 for Pakistan’s education system shall be formulated to transform Pakistani education system to be among world’s best.
• A uniform system of education will be introduced step by step.
• Dropout rate at primary level will be reduced by providing missing facilities in schools and free text books, offering incentives, especially for girls.
• Facilities for teacher training will be expanded at a rapid pace
• Teaching at all levels will be made an attractive profession.
• Efforts will be made to bring in high caliber teachers by offering better salary, improved service structure and other benefits.
• The selection of teachers shall be purely on merit through a transparent selection process
• Training and refresher courses will be conducted at all levels; promotion will be linked with qualifications and performance.
• Assist and coordinate efforts of the provincial governments to improve and standardize curricula in different subjects.
• National Curriculum Council shall be established comprising of eminent public and private sectors experts to review national curriculum and bring it to international standards.
• Federal transfers would be linked to Provincial allocation to ensure earmarking of sufficient resources for education.
• Liberal grants will be made for science laboratories in all secondary schools.
• National and provincial level science competitions shall be organized to identify young talent.
• Computer labs shall be established in all the government high schools in the first phase.
• All merit students in public universities shall be provided laptops.
• Instruction of foreign languages shall be introduced in national curriculum.
• Student career counseling services shall be introduced in schools, colleges and universities.
• Danish Schools shall be set up in all provinces.
• Education Endowment Funds shall be set up in all provinces to award merit scholarships to poor and needy students for higher education.
• HEC will be given greater autonomy and financial resources to ensure adequate standards in Higher Education.
• Technology Development Fund shall be established for HEC scholars returning after completion of PhD to introduce new technologies in the country.
• Vice Chancellors of all public sector universities shall be appointed through a transparent merit based process through Search Committees.
• The standards in universities shall be raised to transform them into world class universities. Additional higher educational institutions will be established in public and private sectors, especially in remote areas to increase enrolment in higher education.
• Vocational and technical education will be promoted, especially in rural areas. Efforts will be made to integrate vocational training with mainstream education to meet the needs of our
youth interested in following technical careers.
• At least one world class technology university will also be established in every province.
• Madrassas will be provided financial assistance and other incentives to bring their syllabus and standards in conformity with the mainstream education to improve the employment prospects of Madrassa students. Also, vocational training will be offered to them to encourage them to become entrepreneurs.
• Education sector monitoring will be strengthened through autonomous monitoring and evaluations authorities and use of modern technology to check the performance of education sector.
• National Testing Service will be strengthened.
• ‘Reading culture’ will be promoted by developing libraries at national, provincial and district levels equipped with modern reference tools.
• A detailed action plan will be formulated to upgrade the capacity of provincial governments for the effective handling of additional responsibilities entrusted to them under the 18th Amendment. 
• Special education institutions shall be expanded
• Schools for Overseas Pakistani children to be transformed into top quality education institutions. 
PTI • Education Emergency –
• Urdu and/or local languages as medium of instruction.
• Each province will choose Urdu and/or local language as medium of instruction in all govt and private schools up to grade 8
• Grade 8 to 10 will be transition years during which schools will shift to using English as medium of instruction
• English will be medium of instruction for all university and professional education
• English and Urdu will be taught as compulsory subject from grade 1 to 12
• Decentralize service delivery to District – all hiring within district – empower community to mange school.
• A need-based voucher system to fund students to go to private schools to fill gaps where govt schools are not enough
• Focus on Girls education – double number of Girls High Schools in 5 years.
• Special porgramme to modernize and upgrade govt sector Colleges for near term impact
• Sports and extra – curricular activities like debates to be specially emphasized for developing potential of youth
MQM • Present dual system of education be abolished, not to degrade the privately managed institutions, but to upgrade the Urdu medium public sector educational institutions at par with the Grammar and English medium institutions.
• Measures be taken to drastically revise the syllabi of the public sector and Urdu medium schools for a uniform syllabi in all the educational institutions.
• Madaris (religious seminaries) be provided incentives to bring such institutions at par with the main stream of education at national level.
• Provinces shall supply free books, uniforms and transport facilities to school going children.
• Introduce an evaluation system through Key Performance Indicators (KPI), which need to be monitored by the Community Management Boards at taluka/tehsil and district level to sustain the growth of literacy and standard of education and to ensure minimal dropout rate and no corporal punishment to the students.
• Every Province need to draw plans for the refurbishing of school buildings, provision of drinking water, washrooms, boundary walls and security arrangements.
• Actively encourage ‘adopt-a-school’ policy to ensure that philanthropists play an active role in promoting free education
• Put on fast track the motto, ‘enter to learn’; and ‘go to earn’ especially in vocational schools
• Launch extensive training and refresher courses for primary and secondary school teachers
• The examination system will be made more transparent and rigorous.
• Grants and scholarship will be provided to such brilliant students who show best results and seek higher education both at home and abroad, especially for students who come from financially disadvantaged background.
• Official grants for professional colleges, like medical and engineering- so as to lessen the fee-burden for those poor students who cannot afford to bear the burden of high-fees.
• Reintroduce/ strengthen the role of elected students unions. 
ANP • Work to eliminate multiple systems of education and create a single system which meets international standards.
• Build a monitored and accountable network of easily accessible primary and secondary schools.
• Ensure basic facilities in existing primary and secondary schools.
• Committed to rebuilding better all schools bombed by terrorists.
• De-bureaucratize and decentralize educational governance and work towards eliminating political interference and corruption in the education sector.
• Establish education task force to provide oversight both in terms of access and governance.
• Classrooms and teachers students’ ratio will be rationalized.
• All high schools will be upgraded to higher secondary schools (12 years of education).
• Will build on the existing concept of elected Parent Teacher Associations with financial freedom for infrastructure development and academic Audit.
• Merit and need based scholarships will be available for public schools students especially for girls students.
• Special incentives will be given to students in remote districts.
• Will ensure stringent regulation of private educational institutions.
• Each district will have at least one college with degree awarding status and each district will be provided opportunity to establish its own university.
• Vocational centres providing market based skills will be established and strengthened with certified staff in all sectors of local labour industry to provide suitable options for students who are unable to acquire a professional degree.
• Universities will be declared centres of excellence in research offering MS, PhD and other research projects with academic linkages with local and international institutions.
• Merit based research fellowships will be awarded to MS and PhD students in public universities.
• Provincial Higher Education Commissions will be established and strengthened.
• Will continue to review and purify curriculum from hate literature and unwarranted glorification of wars so as to make it more creative and skills oriented.
• Civic, cultural, peace and environmental education will be made part and parcel of all school curricula.
• Curricula will incorporate local history and indigenous creative, aesthetic, social, political and cultural icons and legends.
• Will de-monopolize textbooks publication.
• Teachers trainings will be based on research oriented modern concepts of child centred education.
• Assessment and evaluation (examination) will be rationalized and computerized.
• Education in mother tongue along with research oriented second language and foreign languages will be taught.
• Recruitment, evaluation and promotion of teaching faculty will be carried out strictly on merit basis.
• Regulation of private education institutions will be rationally and objectively implemented.
• Quality teachers training will be institutionalized and promotions linked to training certification.
PML-Q • Standardization of education curriculum, examination system and higher education shall be subject of the Federal Legislative List.
• Vocational and technical education shall be introduced in the technical stream of education from 8th Class.
• Establishment of Technical and Vocational Training Institutes at district and tehsil level with special focus on women and girls in backward areas.
• Establishment of Public Libraries at the district and tehsil level.
• Revive National Teacher’s Day.
• Strengthen the education system in Madrassas by diversification of the curriculum.
• Sports, arts and music will be introduced through public, private partnership in government schools.
• HEC will be made fully autonomous.
  Health Budget
PPPP • Increase spending on health to 5% of consolidated government spending by the end of next term.
PML- N • Increase the overall expenditure on Health to at least 2% of GDP by 2018.
PTI • Increase spending from 0.86% of GDP to 2.6%in 5 years
MQM • Increase public expenditure on health from 0.6 % to 5% of GDP during next five years. 
ANP • Allocate at least 6 percent of the GDP to health.
PML-Q --
  Health Indicators
PPPP • Cut maternal and infant mortality rates by 60 per cent.
• Take measures to stem rapid population growth and bring the population growth rate down to 1.6 per cent.
• Increase coverage of LHW services to 100% of rural areas.
• Ensure 100% vaccination of infants and children less than 5 years.
• Eradicate polio by 2015.
PML- N • Achieve 100% vaccination of children, 50% reduction in maternal and infant mortality and at least 10% reduction in the rate of population growth within 5 years
• Achieve at least 10% reduction in the rate of population growth.
PTI • Increasing existing healthcare coverage by public sector by 100%
• Public awareness campaigns to reduce growth rate from 2.2% to 1.6%
MQM • Eradicate polio through a countrywide sustainable Anti Polio Vaccination Drive. 
ANP • Mortality and morbidity rates from common infectious diseases will be reduced to minimum by providing preventive and curative basic measures at the primary health care levels.
• Work towards stabilizing and reducing population growth to 1 percent by 2020.
PML-Q --
  Health in General
PPPP •  Better governance and transparent utilization of allocations by the provinces.
• Bring about a revolution in health care by strengthening three of our formative programmes: LHWs, mother & child health, and EPI.
• New policy initiatives to tackle socioeconomic disparity and lack of education, being major impediments to achieving the health care targets of the MDGs.
• Create special departments/units to deal exclusively with preventive healthcare and medicine.
• Devise strategies to tackle high levels of communicable diseases including gastroenteritis, hepatitis, typhoid, malaria, dengue fever, respiratory disease, tuberculosis and polio.
• Merge polio eradication, routine vaccination, LHWs, mother and child care, malaria and hepatitis control, and family planning to create a consolidated and coordinated public health programme, providing security for vaccinators.
• Build on the success of the LHW programme, developing well-resourced community-level interventions to serve as the primary point of contact between service providers and citizens.
• Develop community-level interventions that encompass EPI routine immunization.
• Provide maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH) services in every basic health unit (BHU) and rural health centre (RHC) in each district.
• Launch behavioural change campaigns in media, and through community organizations and Party structures, to protect the population from infectious diseases.
• Provide clean drinking water and ensure the proper disposal of sewage.
• Introduce nutrition supplements for children, adolescent girls and pregnant women.
• Deploy mobile preventive health care teams to reach universal coverage targets, especially to provide priority coverage to households identified in the poverty survey.
• Procure WHO-certified vaccines at competitive rates.
• Bring equity in service delivery with greater spending for underserved and marginalized areas.
PML- N • National Health Service (NHS) will be set up with participation of the private sector.
• Under the NHS, National Health Insurance Scheme will be introduced initially to cover the most vulnerable segment of the population.
• This facility will be free for children under 12 in full-time education, senior citizens over 65 and families with low income.
• Coverage of Rs. 150,000 per annum would be provided for each covered family for meeting indoor treatment, inclusive of surgeries.
• Existing BHUs will be strengthened and where possible leased to private Medical practitioners in public–private partnership mode. Help will be provided to qualified doctors who wish to set up new clinics.
• Each District will have a District Healthcare Authority (DHA) to manage the health system under a semi-autonomous Board of Governors (BoG) consisting of eminent community representatives and professionals.
• Each District will have at least one hospital with complete diagnostic facilities and specialist in required fields.
• At least 1,000 mobile health units will be launched for remote areas and isolated localities.
• Critical care units shall be established in each Tehsil headquarters’ hospital.
• Medical colleges and teaching hospitals will also become fully autonomous bodies managed by their respective Board of Governors.
• Schemes like Orangi Pilot Project will be replicated to seek community participation in provision of services like water supply and sewerage at reduced costs.
• Private sector will be encouraged to expand pharmaceutical manufacturing and setup manufacturing of diagnostic equipment so that cheap and effective treatment is available to the people.
• An independent Drug and Food Administration will be set up to enforce proper standards, check spurious drugs and regulate prices of medicines.
• Effective hospital hygiene and waste disposal programmes shall be introduced.
• Well-being of senior citizens and handicapped persons will be ensured by special facilities, preferential access and concessions.
• Special quotas will also be earmarked in jobs and educational institutions for handicapped persons. 
PTI • Health Sector Emergency”
• Provide Primary Health Care (PHC) to the poor – All BHUs RHCs revitalized with Doctors, Staff and medicines – RHCs to be fulcrum of PHC delivery – focus on Mother & Child health care
• All DHQ/THQ hospitals to be modernized
• Create jobs in healthcare (doctors, nurses, LHW’s, LHVs, and paramedics)
• Ensure fee primary health care system for poor
• Focus on disease prevention
• Achieve MDGs related to health
• Put in place a fully devolved national health governance system with solid links to the community
• Ensure availability of clean drinking water and sanitation facilities across rural and urban areas
• Initiate national programmes on Prevention of Blindness, Genetic disorders, Mental illnesses, and oro-dental diseases.
• Initiate a mega Population Control project to reduce population growth rate. Population planning will be made part of the Health Department and integrated at the District level
• National Campaign on reproductive health, including birth spacing to be launched.
• Develop a need based workforce of health and ensure a proper service structure
• Strengthen regulatory authorities regarding medical services, drug and food.
MQM • Ensure improvement of health sector regulation with the help of international organizations.
• Continue empowerment of Provinces to frame policies and plans for provision of healthcare
• Restore the role of Local Governments in effective implementation & monitoring of on-ground activities.
• Targeting population planning, being the most important issue that is not receiving due attention.
• Targeting primary health care with focus on environmental concerns and public healthcare, especially water and sanitation.
• Ensuring full coverage of EPI.
• Establish, strengthen and equip hospitals in every district and health care centers in every village of the country.
• Establish institutions for training nurses, lady health-visitors, midwives and other paramedical staff in every district. Develop a trained administrative cadre in health to improve the efficiency of health administration at district and provincial level.
• Task shifting through Telemedicine, referral links and highly improved information system to eliminate the physician shortage.
• Introduction of low cost and subsidized health insurance schemes for all citizens. Effective utilization of Zakat fund in health sector.
• Encourage private sector to initiate employee-contribution-based schemes to provide health coverage for all employees. For preventive care the Basic Health Unit (BHU) level, the involvement of the private sector with its ability to reach out to communities will be further strengthened.
• Take measures to lower the prices of medicines; rationalization of import policy of raw material for manufacturing the medicines locally to make medicines affordable.
• Effectively implement organ transplant legislation.
• Improve access to healthcare for disabled.
• Develop proper service structures for medics and paramedics.
• Establishment of "Health Services Reform Commission" for research, policy advice and implementing standards in healthcare.
• Targeting HR discrepancies.
• Contingency planning for emergencies. Revive NDMA and strengthen PDMAs and make them inclusive & transparent.
ANP • Ensure improved access and quality of health services for all citizens. Options including insurance schemes, regulation and/or support to the private health sector shall be considered.
• Decentralize health services to bring them closer to the door step with special emphasis on improvement of rural health services.
• Emphasize on mother and child healthcare, provision of clean drinking water and preventive medicines.
• Emphasize on primary health care (PHC) and will provide firm foundation for the establishment of secondary and tertiary care.
• Seek public and private sector partnership, particularly for primary health care.
• Institute special health care insurance packages and incentives for senior citizens.
• Ensure full participation of the community in primary health care and provide incentives for health staff especially those working in remote areas.
• Focus on upgrading and better equipping BHU, RHC to provide good foundation for the health delivery system.
• Introduce family medical registration form and record keeping system at each BHU and RHC levels. Also introduce proper referral system of medical cases to the secondary and tertiary care levels with proper transportation facility on no loss no profit basis.
• Ensure continuous health education for all the health care staff i.e. Doctors, Nurses, Paramedics and health technicians. Setup district level institutions for Nurses, male & female, paramedics and health technicians training linked to District Hospitals.
• Ensure coordination between public health sectors i.e. Health Department, Public Health Engineering, and industrial and environmental departments.
• Ensure liaison between medical institutions, health departments, and private health sectors to ensure a balance between demand and supply of all health staff and health facilities.
• Ensure quality control and stringent regulation of private medical services and institutions.
• Establish fully functional burn and trauma hospitals initially at provincial headquarters and later at each divisional level.
PML-Q • The nationwide Immunization Programme to control infant mortality and vulnerability of infants will be strengthened through advocacy and creating synergies in the Provinces between preventive and curative health services.
• Rescue 1122 will be extended to every district in the country in five years.
• Hospitals to be required to have proper waste disposal system.
• Facilities for diabetes, Blood Pressure and Urine test shall be provided at all major government hospital.
• A Hepatitis Prevention and Cure Plan will be prepared and implemented.
  Poverty/ Social Protection
PPPP • Further strengthen BISP by expanding education, vocational training and health services.
• Encourage provincial governments to provide matching grants to further expand and strengthen BISP.
•  Increase BISP monthly cash transfers to 2,000 rupees, pegged to inflation annually.
• Promote creation of institutions for special Children/ children with disabilities & provide funds for existing schools and facilities for those with special needs.
• Further expand network of Utility Stores across the country.   
PML- N • Ensure universal access to affordable food grains in all parts of the country by legislating the “Right to Food” as a fundamental right.
• Ensure the guaranteed support price for grains to farmers and relative price stability through improved arrangements for storage.
• Introduce a transparent system of income support programme for needy families with incomes below the prescribed limit with a special focus on widows, orphans and the girl child.
• Education scholarships will be provided to orphans, disabled and other needy students for acquiring skills and higher education.
• Replace most untargeted subsidies with targeted subsidies.
• Take advantage of capacity of community organizations to respond to emergencies and national calamities.
• Undertake special labor-intensive employment programmes especially in areas affected by insurgency and natural disasters based on small infrastructure or rehabilitation projects.
• Raise the total spending on non-pension social protection from the current level of 1% of GDP to at least 2% by 2018.
PTI • Rural land reform to ensure that maximum number of rural households own a minimum-specified area of land
• Urban land policy focused on allocation of state/ military controlled land, for development of housing estates consisting of 3 Marla plots
MQM • Creation of a comprehensive national policy outlining specific targets and measures to curb poverty. Special focus must be placed on creating even playing fields for educational attainment, health status and employment opportunities.
• Narrowing of gap between wage rise and inflation. Both public and private sector wage rises must be directly proportional to inflation.
• Control food price inflation by stabilizing and / or subsidizing the prices of wheat, rice, sugar and oil.
• Greater public investment in agriculture, including agro-industry, agribusiness and live stock; greater incentives for cooperative farming and cooperative marketing in rural areas and housing and construction in urban areas.
• Reduction of taxes on low income and poor people.
• Introduction of social security schemes for all adult population.
• Promotion of education and training is vital for poverty alleviation. 
ANP Continue to develop safety nets in the line of Bacha Khan Employment, Technical Training and Rural Development Schemes initiated by the ANP led Pakhtunkhwa government and replicate these programmes in other Provinces.
PML-Q • Focus on sustainable growth to ensure the growing economy benefits are fast tracked to reach the poor.
• Establish a National Commission on Poverty to synergize all poverty related interventions.  
  Women Empowerment
PPPP • Propose a law for political parties to commit an additional 10% quota for women while selecting candidates on general seats.
• Announce a Fair Pay and Fair Job Policy for women, and put in place an Equality Commission to ensure fair pay for women and minorities. It will also ensure that there is no discrimination on the basis of sex, religion or class.
• Increase the job quota for women to 20%.
• Ensure mandatory representation of women in all private- and public-sector boards.
• Engage NCHD to target one million women for literacy and education programmes.
• Frame progressive legislation to secure women’s rights to life, dignity, access to resources, employment, inheritance and justice.
• Enact law to prevent acid crimes against women, and to safeguards rights of home-based women workers. Legislation against domestic violence will be extended to all of Pakistan.
• Ensure provision of credit for women entrepreneurs and rural women farmers by encouraging commercial banks to develop their SME portfolio and training women entrepreneurs to set up or expand SME businesses.
• Encourage every district to establish cottage and craft industries, with marketing initiatives through public–private partnerships.
• Encourage all social welfare programmes to take measures to offer social protection to single women as well as widows and women with special needs.
• Design a special programme to ensure that every woman giving birth is provided safe medical support and every child born is entitled to protection, nutrition and vaccination until the age of 5 years.
• Promote the participation of women in all fields of work at all levels.
• Ensure that a quota for women judges is put in place making women integral to the judicial process at all levels.
• Take concrete steps to ensure protection of women by initiating reforms in law enforcement agencies and banning illegal alternative justice systems which legitimize crimes against women.
PML- N • Ensure respect, dignity, and protection granted by Islam to women and protect their property rights.
• Promote participation of women in national development and their social, political and economic empowerment by recognizing their role as agents of change.
• Give preference to women teachers in primary education.
• Promote female education especially vocational skills training and healthcare programmes to overcome gender gaps.
• Enact or improve legislation on violence against women and child abuse, and eliminate illegal and unjust practices under which women are discriminated.
• Expand micro credit for female borrowers substantially as a part of the empowerment process, combined with special house building credit facilities for widows.
• Steps will also be taken to increase women’s participation ratios in financial institutions, superior judiciary, health and educational management and law enforcement agencies at executive level.
• Institutional mechanism against harassment of women at workplace shall be enforced.
• Day Care facilities will be established to support working women to make workplaces women friendly.
• “Women Entrepreneurship Financing Scheme” shall be launched to promote women entrepreneurship.
PTI • Free education for girls up to matric.
• Introduce scholarships for higher education in computer sciences, medicine, management & engineering
• Social awareness & enforcement of law to prevent practices like Sawara & Karo Kari
• Provide housing & childcare assistance to working women
• Encourage involvement of women in management of rural development initiatives
• Develop a national programme for vocational & skill based training for income generation
• Special functional literacy programs for women
• Legislation for in-camera trial of molestation & rape cases
• ‘Women support cells’ in police stations
• Legislation to curb violence against women
MQM • Effective legislation and implementation of strict punitive measures against the following: all police/other law enforcement agencies' torture and excesses; confinement without trial; socio-political harassment; social ailments like gender discrimination; sexual harassment; discouragement of female education and their full participation in society as equal citizens; domestic violence; child abuse; rape in vengeance and otherwise and forcing opponent’s womenfolk to march naked on public streets; honour killings; child marriage; Karo Kari, Vinee, marriage to the Holy Quran, acid victims, bonded labour and child labour.
• Launching of a massive public awareness campaign, both in urban and rural areas, in collaboration with community participation to educate masses of their fundamental human rights and means to address them in case of their violation.
• Repealing of all existing discriminatory laws against women.
• MQM proposes to gradually increase the representation of women to 50 percent in all walks of life, particularly in the Parliament and provincial assemblies and in the government and semi-government offices.
ANP • Continue efforts to increase Women’s Participation in decision-making at all levels to a minimum of 33% representation in Political Parties, Parliament, Provincial Assemblies, local government, public services, superior judiciary, public commissions and boards etc.
• Evolve consensus on direct elections for women to all elected positions including reserved seats/quota.
• Provide women requisite technical and financial support to enable them to participate effectively in all spheres of life.
• Ensure equal access and opportunities to employment for women and take effective administrative steps to ensure implementation of existing 10% quota for women..
• Continue efforts to repeal all discriminatory laws and policies that infringe on the equal rights of women and their participation in decision making.
• Continue efforts for promulgation of pending domestic violence legislation and trafficking in women.
• Comply with international conventions/instruments addressing violence against women and ratify the Optional Protocol of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and other instruments relating to trafficking of women and children and violence against women.
• Ensure that no Laws, Regulations, Policy and Code of conduct prescribed and adopted by the State exclude and/or discriminate against women.
• Review and revise identification policies to ensure that citizens are identified by parentage and not spouse. No requirement of guardian for Women CNIC applicants.
• Create awareness about the importance of gender equality through education and media.
• Take concrete steps to combat Gender Based Violence (GBV) and the concomitant reforms.
• Expand and improve protection and welfare institutions of survivors of GBV.
• Strengthen the relevant Ministries & Departments for Women Development in Provinces.
• Make the existing Provincial Commission on the Status of Women (KP) autonomous (financially and administratively) and establish similar Commissions in other Provinces.
• Prohibit deals between local elders and political parties that bar women from exercising their right to vote and/or contest.
• Ensure administrative reforms to effectively implemnt existing laws for women rights to inheritance, elimination of customary discriminatory practices of child marriages, swara, ghag, vani, etc.
• Encourage recruitment of women in  judicial system as Readers and Moharirs along with needed recruitment as judges in higher courts.
PML-Q • Women Protection Centers shall be established in for destitute, old aged and displaced women in all major cities.
• Prepare a Speedy Justice Action Plan to ensure early disposal of cases involving property and family disputes.
  Population Welfare
PPPP • Bring down population growth rate from current 2% to 1.6% by 2018
• Accelerated family planning programme in coordination with initiatives in health, education, nutrition and poverty eradication, using family planning staff and LHWs
• Promote idea of family planning services as a right, and enhance, improve and expand access 
• Increase contraceptive prevalence from 35% to at least 45% by 2018, and 55% by 2020
• Enhance budgetary commitments to family planning services both at the federal and provincial levels.
• Develop a comprehensive nationwide training programme for public health service providers
• Launch public awareness campaign targeting and engaging young people.
• Use the incentives-based Mother and Child Support Programme to reach out to young mothers to promote family planning through birth spacing and delayed first birth.
• Strengthen institutional mechanisms to improve service delivery and enhance coordination.
• DCOs to monitor and supervise implementation.
• Promote functional integration of health and population departments to ensure efficient service provision.
PML- N • Strengthen policy and advocacy components of the Population Welfare Programme and support Provincial efforts to integrate service delivery with the health infrastructure in the public and private sectors.
• Achieve at least 10% reduction in the rate of population growth.
PTI • Public awareness campaigns to reduce growth rate from 2.2% to 1.6%
• Comprehensive and better managed programme
• Introduce modern family planning methods
MQM (Covered under Health)
ANP • Ensure a holistic, cross sectoral and integrated approach to population planning and well-being, linking programmes and initiatives with health, education, nutrition, environment, skills development and poverty eradication etc.
• Ensure that public and private programmes are focused on mother and child’s health and well-being as of highest priority.
• Work towards stabilizing and reducing population growth to 1 percent by 2020.
• Double per capita expenditure on public sector spending on population planning and well-being.
• Improve quality and access of services especially ensuring better rural outreach for access to high quality birth spacing services.
• Institutionalize training of community women health workers and birth attendants and link their services with the BHUs.
• Ensure community support in implementation and monitoring of programmes;
• Institutionalize a credible mechanism for research and monitoring at Provincial level.
• Launch communication campaign addressing men, women, families and community to promote mother and child health and well being.
• Extend social security and retirement benefits to support parents in old age.
• Invest in skills development, recreational and employment opportunities for the youth population.
PML-Q • Bring back focus on Population growth.
• Trained midwife at every UC level.
• Ensure ownership by Provinces, of devolved population programme.
• Carry out overdue Population Census.
• Put in place birth & death registration system by NADRA.
  Housing
PPPP • Develop schemes to construct more than 500,000 houses for homeless poor in urban and rural areas.
• Provide every government official with a house on mortgage, paying market rates that include interest to cover escalating costs.
• Engage private & not-for-profit sectors in development of housing schemes.
• Address the issues of land scarcity and the proliferation of katchi abadis.
• Law reform to revitalize and redevelop urban areas to house a growing population.
• Improve access to housing finance and building technologies, promoting high-density and mixed land use housing and relaxing taxation and rent restrictions.
• Construct low-cost houses on government land with a 20-year mortgage facility for low-income households to shift from rental to owner-occupied dwellings.
• Assist underprivileged by establishing a government-mandated mortgage bank to provide long-term mortgages.
• Provide a tax credit to low-cost housing schemes using alternative energy as a primary source of power.
PML- N • Develop at least 1,000 clusters of 500 houses each for low income families in public private partnership mode.
• Strive to eventually provide a house to each Pakistani family through public-private partnership by expanding credit facilities for low-income housing and encouraging provincial governments to provide land for such housing schemes.
PTI • Encourage and provide incentives for reducing massive backlog of housing needs.
• Give innovative financing measures to facilitate housing needs of the deserving.
• Create transparency and security for Titling. 
MQM Encourage and invest in low cost housing schemes in urban areas.
ANP --
PML-Q • Introduce a revolutionary program for provision of low cost houses to all those who cannot afford it.
• Introduce a Government Service Housing Foundation for provision of built houses for govt employees.
  Environment
PPPP • Develop national parks, sanctuaries and reserves, and promote ecotourism.
• Take action to conserve biodiversity, and especially to curb deforestation.
• Develop more effective measures to protect the country from the effects of climate change, including protecting mangroves and coastal areas.
• Curb the trafficking of endangered species, and devise special programmes to ensure that Pakistan’s rich wildlife is protected. Ecotourism initiatives will be used to generate much-needed investment in expanding wildlife sanctuaries.
• Strengthen federal and provincial institutions engaged in sustainable development activities, and bolster efforts to increase environmental awareness.
• Use the green economy framework to achieve sustainable development.
• Ensure that the principle of sustainability is built into all future plans for development.
PML- N • Give high priority to ecologically sound development policies to preserve and develop the country’s natural and forest resources to counteract the impact of global warming and fight the cancer of water-logging and salinity.
• Past natural disaster remnants like floods and earthquake affectees will be rehabilitated adequately.
• Prioritization of routes destroyed in natural disasters will be undertaken
• Model villages will be built in all natural disaster zones to reduce discrimination
PTI • Primary focus on provision of clean air and potable water to all through ‘Green development agenda’
• Responsible development to be ensured. EIA to be a decision making tool.
• Industrial pollution to be tackled through CETPs, clean production promotion and EIA.
• Endeavour to restore & preserve our unique natural assets by proper environmental valuation.
• Halt deforestation and double forest cover in 5 years.
• REDD financial mechanism to be used for forest valuation.
• Integrated waste management to be introduced in all urban areas.
• Target creation of 5 million green jobs through alternate economic activities.
• Affordable & green mass transit systems to be introduced.
• Climate change fund will be announced to channelize & leverage climate compatible development.
MQM • Extensive forestation in a most aggressive way.
• Industrial effluent and untreated sewage must not be dumped in to the sea.
• Sea and coast lines would be protected.
• Environment friendly urban development will be regulated, encouraged and promoted.
• To combat industrial waste initially government will facilitate in installation of Combined Effluent Treatment Plants. 
ANP • Urgently address the problems of safe disposal of hospital, industrial and other toxic waste.
• Focus on improvement of urban waste management system.
• Increase safe drinking water supply coverage and increase sanitation facilities.
• Double the forest cover including state-owned, private forest and farmlands, as percentage of the total land area.
• High priority will be given to cleaning of rivers.
• Increase land area protected for the conservation of wildlife.
• Provincial Environmental Protection Agencies & tribunals will be strengthened to effectively monitor and act against environmental violations.
• Focus on fuel efficient, comfortable, reliable and low cost intra and inter-city public transport system.
• Proactively explore and support alternate energy sources especially solar and run of the river energy.
PML-Q Set up National Environment, Climate Change & Water Resources Authority.
Activate the Environment Protection Act of 1997.
Eliminate timber mafia by criminalizing erosion of forest cover.
Ban import of hazardous chemical wastes.
Deny exploitation of offshore resources by big trawlers.
Integrated plan for water disposal.
  Minority Rights
PPPP • Create equal opportunities through progressive legislation and policy reform.
• Build consensus for special procedures in the law to prevent forced conversions.
• Incorporate Quaid-e-Azam’s 11th August 1947 speech in school curriculum which provides a roadmap for religious harmony in the country.
• Strengthen interfaith harmony and promote dialogue by involving the best religious scholars of the country.
• Protect religious properties and places of worship with effective security, and refurbish, expand and rebuild them where necessary.
• Make reparations for lost assets, incomes and opportunities.
• Ensure that the Equality Commission monitors the implementation of job quotas for minorities, people with disabilities and other communities facing discrimination.
• Add one more seat in Parliament for minorities to represent the Islamabad Capital Territory (ICT).
• Revive and reconstitute the National Commission on Minorities as a statutory body. Its members will include representatives of minority and vulnerable communities.
• Seek Parliament’s advice through its two standing committees on minorities to review the effects of constitutional clauses that discriminate on the basis of religion.
• Ensure that all educational institutions protect their students from discrimination on the grounds of religion by implementing effective mechanisms for redress and accountability.
• Encourage religious tolerance within society through public information campaigns and by sending a clear, unequivocal message to state institutions that anyone responsible for bigotry, intolerance, discrimination and abuse will be held accountable.
• Urge media houses to set up mechanisms for monitoring and accountability that discourage irresponsible and inaccurate reporting while taking note of public incitement to violence and hate speech against any segment of society, particularly religious minorities.
PML- N • Minorities will have complete freedom of worshiping and the right to education and employment in all sectors of the economy.
• National Day for Minorities will be celebrated to promote integration and remove sense of deprivation.
• Legislation to ensure that there is no forced conversion of religion in the guise of marriage.
• Increase Minority representation in Evacuee Trust Property Board (ETPB).
• Introduce quota for minorities in educational institutions and public sector jobs including diplomatic missions.
• Christian community will be permitted to run their own schools and colleges.
• Development funds earmarked for minorities will be doubled.
• The Hindu Marriage Bill will be accelerated through the National Assembly.
• Minorities may be given official leave and advance salary to celebrate their religious festivities.
PTI • Minorities will be given equal opportunity, protection under the law and freedom to practice their religion.
• Zero tolerance for any abuse/ threat/ violence against any minority group.
• Ensure due representation in all state institutions.
• Equal access to economic opportunity.
• Hate speeches and literature will be banned.
MQM • Repealing of all existing discriminatory laws against non muslims.
• Treating non Muslims as equal citizens of Pakistan and awarding them state protection for their lives, property as well as freedom to practice their religion freely.
• MQM favours abolishing the term ''minorities'' for non-Muslim population of Pakistan and believes that they should be elected directly through general elections. 
ANP • All discriminatory laws shall be repealed. The essence of security will be guaranteed among the religious and ethnic minorities.
• Continue struggle for a secular democratic & pluralistic Pakistan with equal rights and opportunities for all citizens.
• Continue efforts to repeal amendments made to the 1973 Constitution mainly by dictators relegating religious minorities to a secondary status.
• Ensure affirmative action to integrate religious minorities as equal citizens.
• Incitement to violence against citizens of other ethnicity, faith and religions will be prohibited.
PML-Q • Religious Minorities Protection Bill will be introduced to solve matrimonial & other issues.
• All steps will be taken to avoid misuse of Blasphemy Law.
• Necessary steps would be taken to stop forced conversions lawfully.
• Ensure interfaith harmony.
• Ensure implementation of 5% quota for non-muslims.
• Non-muslim reserved seats to be increased according to their population.
• Non-Muslims to be allowed to contest on general seats.
• Appoint non-Muslim Chairman of Evacuee Trust Property Board.
  Persons with Disabilities (PWDs)
PPPP --
PML- N --
PTI • Reserve at least 3 seats in each assembly
• Building laws to be amended to make them PWD-friendly.
• Institutions set up for PWDs will be tax free and equipment for their support duty free.
• Free medical treatment for mentally challenged people and PWDs poor families.
• 2% PWD will be inducted at each level of Govt.
• 10% of all welfare expenditure to be for PWDs.
• Each district will have a vocational training center for PWDs.
MQM • Establishment of Old Age Homes in every district for elderly people having no families.
• Visible and substantial increase in opportunities for Physically Challenged and Mentally Disturbed people in every field such as development centres, ranging from educational to employment.
• Introduction of Reserved Seats in National Assembly for Physically Challenged people, as per the Constitutional Amendment Bill tabled by MQM in the Parliament.
• Orphanages should be patronized by the Government and restructured in a manner that Safety, security and well being of orphans is ensured.
• Special care and attention towards children and adults with special needs and establishment of day care centres where specialists will be employed.
• MQM will assert to rehabilitate the street children and the juvenile and women prisoners 
ANP • Ensure protection of rights, development and welfare of people with disabilities.
• Strive for meaningful participation of disabled in decision making at all levels. It will make serious effort to improve safety and accessibility for them in public and work places and will ensure implementation of existing quotas in letter and spirit.
PML-Q • Ensure special needs and rights of disabled particularly their right to normal life as equal citizens.
• Wheel Chair access, special toilets and parking facilities in buildings will be made compulsory.
Good Governance – Institutional Reform
  Constitutional Reform 
PPPP • A constitutional court will be established with equal representation
from all federating units and the inclusion of other areas administered by the state.
PML- N --
PTI • Curtailing Presidential powers of promulgating Ordinances
• Set up a Judicial Commission for appointment & accountability of judges.
MQM --
ANP • Every citizen shall have the right to hold any public office including the offices of the President and Prime Minister.
• Amend the constitution to mainstream FATA, bring it under the Parliament’s ambit and ensure equal rights and opportunities for the people.
• Amend the Constitution to ensure that the Pakhtunkhwa Governor can be a registered voter of FATA and/or Pakhtunkhwa.
PML-Q --
  Judicial Reform
PPPP • Strengthen prosecution services through training and capacity building of lawyers.
• Formulate laws to expedite and increase access to justice by introducing mobile courts and evening courts, and by formalizing mechanisms for alternate dispute resolution (ADR) through local government system.
• Free legal aid will be institutionalized.
• Revisit the review and writ jurisdictions of the courts to ensure that norms of justice are upheld.
• Strengthen civil courts with a time limit on adjudication.
• Review laws pertaining to appointment of judges and identify ways to make the judiciary more inclusive, especially with regard to representation of women and minorities in the higher judiciary.
• Computerize the records of registrar’s offices and the lower judiciary to improve efficiency and record keeping.
• Improve the quality of education and training for lawyers and paralegal staff. 
PML- N • The huge backlog of cases at every level will be reduced through legislation which will provide for completion of initial trial in civil cases within one year and in criminal cases within 6 months, with appellate proceeding to be completed within the following year.
• The number of judges will be substantially increased. All vacancies will be filled on priority basis. New posts and ancillary infrastructure will also be provided keeping in view pendency of cases at different levels.
• Pakistan Law Commission will be asked to examine the feasibility of reducing the existing 4-tiers system (trial court, appellate court, High Court, Supreme Court) to 3-tiers (trial court, appellate/ High Court, Supreme Court). Under this radical reform, civil courts would be abolished and trial would start at the Additional District Judge level.
• A major campaign to promote Alternate Dispute Resolution (ADR) will be launched.
• The role of the Ombudsman will be strengthened and enhanced. Office of District Ombudsman will be established.
• Feasibility of establishment of High Court benches at divisional level will be discussed with the Bench and Bar.
• Pakistan Law Commission will be strengthened entrusted with the task of reviewing all existing laws and recommending repeal of outdated laws; amendments in laws in the light of new requirements and; consolidation of all laws on the same subject.
• Pakistan Code will be updated through appropriate legislation based on these recommendations.
PTI • Jurisdiction and strength of Small Causes courts to be enhanced upto Rs.10 million
• Penal laws are to be updated.
• Criminal punishments are to be rationalized.
• More criminal cases to be made compoundable.
• Prosecutors, witnesses and judges to be protected.
• Jail reforms to be instituted to transform them into reformatories. 
MQM • Establishing an independent and impartial judiciary at all levels.
• Elimination of delays in delivering justice, non-trial or inordinate delays of cases and congestion in prisons through comprehensive judicial reforms and by establishing close working relationship between by the government and the judiciary.
• Introduction of extensive and effective jail reforms to reform the prisoners into responsible citizens and to eliminate widespread human rights abuses in jails.
• Ensure that steps are taken to provide justice to every citizen regardless of his or her financial status. The poor will be assisted with legal aid by the State to contest their case in courts.
• Introduce and establish a comprehensive plan for witness protection and give it constitutional cover to encourage citizens to come forward and record their statements without fear or favour
ANP • Strive for the abolishment of parallel legal and quasi-legal systems so as to ensure a uniform, integrated judicial system in the country.
PML-Q • Equip the judicial system at lower level with adequate manpower, infrastructure and capacity building.
• Parallel judicial system of Jirgas will be effectively banned.
• Appointments of subordinate judiciary will be made only through autonomous PSCs.
• Emoluments of judges will be raised and appropriate facilities provided.
• Court procedures will be simplified and streamlined.
• Alternate Dispute Resolution Boards shall be constituted across Pakistan.
• Arrangement shall be made for payment of stipends to young lawyers for first 5 years through Bar Councils/ Associations.
  Electoral Reform
PPPP • Pursue further reforms to make elections more transparent.
PML- N • Grant voting rights to all overseas Pakistanis and dual-nationals. All CNIC and NICOP holders will be facilitated to register their votes with the Election Commission in order to vote in person or by a postal ballot system.
PTI • Strengthening of EC
• Simplify voter registration
• Ban on appointment, promotion, transfer of civil servants after announcement of election schedule
• Convicted person to be barred from election even if his appeal is pending
Loan defaulters to be barred from contesting
MQM • Continue
to empower Election Commission of Pakistan to make it completely independent, neutral and impartial body so that it could hold free, fair and transparent elections, both general or of local bodies.
ANP --
PML-Q --
  Federalism & Intergovernmental Relations
PPPP • Further strengthen the doctrine of ‘institutional power’ by enhancing the capacity of forums of federal–provincial interaction and shared responsibility such as the Council of Common Interests (CCI) and the National Economic Council (NEC).
• Promote a culture of negotiated conflict resolution in the case of inter- and intra-provincial disputes.
• Review the efficacy of the 7th NFC Award formula for resource distribution to further democratize resource distribution in the next NFC Award (2014–15).
• Karachi will receive a special grant in the NFC Award from the federal divisible pool.
• Take all possible measures to create the Bahawalpur-Janoobi Punjab province.
PML- N • Provincial autonomy granted through 18th amendment will be fully implemented in the shortest possible time & monitored by a parliamentary committee.
• The functions, responsibilities and financial powers of the AJK and GB will be gradually brought at par with the provinces. The AJK/GB legislative assemblies will be empowered.
• Pakistaniyat Code, basic minimum criteria of good practices and values will be charted to ensure that the provinces are woven together by shared values.
• The 1991 Water Accord will be implemented in letter and spirit.
• IRSA will be restructured and strengthened to ensure neutrality and fair distribution of water as per 1991 Accord.
• Intra-provincial water theft between head and tail farmers will be curtailed by canal lining and other measures.
• No water projects will be commenced without consensus among all the concerned units of the Federation.
• Old and new affectees displaced by any water projects will be adequately compensated. Past royalty, boundary disputes on water projects between provinces will be taken to CCI for speedy resolution.
• A fair accord between all provinces and territories will be carried out to dispose the waste waters without causing environmental and financial damage to any of the provinces/ territories.
• The financial responsibility for the treatment of waste water will lie onto the waste originating province/ territory.
• The age old practice of dumping waste into fresh water lakes would be stopped and such lakes will be rehabilitated.
• Villages on the borders of the Sindh, Baluchistan and Punjab where this waste causes much damage and the coastal belt of Sindh will be duly compensated and will have the right to petition.
• A special Inter-provincial Drainage Committee (IPDC) will monitor these problems.
• A National Language Commission will be set up to develop criteria for giving the status of national language to all major languages.
• Federal Govt. quotas will be renewed for another 10 years based on backwardness criteria and all provinces and territories to be adequately represented in the Federal government. Fata and GB quotas will not be mixed.  Meaningful representation of all territories / provinces in the higher cadre like federal secretaries, CEOs of SOEs, Ambassadors, Armed Forces, and Civil Armed Forces will be ensured
• The party is committed to creation of Hazara, South Punjab and Bahawalpur Provinces. A high powered Commission will be set up to evolve, through consensus, the criteria and the modalities for the creation of new provinces. 
PTI • Support creation of new provinces based on administrative requirements not on ethnic lines
• Carry out radical reform that empower people, federating units and state institutions and make them accountable.
• Devolve power from central and provincial capitals and empower local communities at the grassroots level.  
MQM • The federation should retain the subjects of defence, foreign affairs and currency. All other subjects should fall in the domain of the federating units.
• To establish in each province by law, a local government system and devolve political, administrative and financial responsibility and authority to the elected representatives of the local government. 
ANP • Committed to Provincial Autonomy with the centre retaining control of defence, foreign affairs, currency, communications and such other subjects which the federating units agree to in the Council of Common Interest. Ensure full implementation of the 18th Amendment, particularly with regards to oil, gas, water and power, energy, health and education. Will build on policies of devolution of powers to the Provinces that were started during the last 3 years.
• Committed to fair and just distribution of water resources particularly of the Indus river system. Strongly oppose usurpation of water rights of the Provinces.
• Ensure protection of the rights and identities of the peoples of the four Provinces, FATA, Gilgit Baltistan, ensuring unrestricted freedom for the development of their cultures and languages.
• Oppose all forms of oppression and violence against the people of Balochistan. Ensure that the Baloch and Pashtun along with other ethnic and social groups are empowered and have fair share in the resources and governance in the Province.
• Support efforts of federating units which wish to reorganize on the basis of historic, cultural, linguistic and geographical similarities in accordance with the constitution.
• Federal civil servants posted to the Province will be appointed with the consent of the Provincial government. The Provincial government will have complete control over all officials serving in the Province.
• At the Federal level, continue to strive for the Provinces rightful share of appointments at all levels.
• Benefits, subsidies and privileges granted to former rulers of States, their dependents or other special classes of citizens shall be abolished.
• The Federation will be urged through CCI to pay for provision of infrastructure and services in Cantonment areas as the Cantonment property taxes are received by the Centre.
• Bring NHA and CAA under the preview of CCI to ensure equity in distribution of funds & projects.
• Ensure that decisions of CCI on hydel profits are implemented in letter and spirit.
• In view of new oil and gas discoveries, particularly in Pukhtunkhwa, new royalty rates will be negotiated to generate more resources for development of Provinces.
• Initiatives such as the setting up of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Gas Company will be considered in other Provinces as well.
• FCR will be amended to provide human right protection as laid down in the Constitution. Also permit oversight Peshawar High Court.
• Institute local bodies with adequate representation of women.
• Work for the dignified return & rehabilitation of FATA IDPs.
• Evolve a comprehensive compensation package for families affected by armed conflict/ terrorism.
• Ensure that displaced families can exercise their right to vote.
• Ensure writ of state in FATA and purge it from all sorts of terror networks.
• Carry out survey of development potential of the area.
PML-Q Ensure implementation of Parliamentary Committee’s Report of 2005 on Balochistan.
Curtail the role of Army  and Para Military Forces in Balochistan only to the extent of National Security and defense purposes.
Give top priority to the issue of missing persons and ensure safety of people.
Provide maximum opportunities and deploy local Baloch people in gas projects.
Increase existing royalty payment on sale of natural gas to meet development needs of provinces.
NFC share of Balochistan shall be revised/ increased according to its needs.
Establish Karachi Emergency Camp represented by all segments to develop consensus on possible solutions to law & order situation.
Involve all political groups for consensus on acceptable local body system.
Initiate party based democratic political process in FATA.
Party based elections in FATA.
FCT shall be abolished.
Engage elders to increase literacy to at least 25%.
Dialogue to be initiated with Taliban and militant groups to bring peace to FATA.
Revise political agent system and increase participation of local elders.
All steps will be taken for creation of South Punjab and Hazara provinces.
  Administrative/ Public Sector Reform
PPPP • Devise mechanisms for merit-based appointments in the provincial public service commissions.
• Establish a parliamentary commission to recommend civil service reforms, including security of tenure in the civil service to protect against illegal and politically motivated transfers and postings.
• Establish a new system of accountability based on outcomes.
• Put in place credible sanctioning mechanisms based on the new system of accountability.
• The existing system of penalization through transfers or rendering a civil servant non-operational (the ‘officer on special duty’, (OSD culture) will be discontinued.
• Restructure mid-career training and refresher courses for civil servants to meet the requirements of dynamic changes in the economy, security and diplomacy.
PML- N • Ensuring open government through transparency, accountability, and participation to fight corruption and improve citizen engagement.
• Transforming public service into a highly capable service provider by promoting merit based system at all levels through improvements in recruitment, postings, promotion, training and incentives.
• Turning public sector into High Performance Organizations by introducing result-based management to impact performance and service delivery with a focus on quality, productivity, evidence based planning, business process reform, restructuring of government ministries and departments, citizen charters, and policy integration and evaluation.
• Harnessing new technologies for efficiency and effectiveness gains by deepening e-governance with a focus on leveraging Information & Communication Technology (ICT), Geographic Information System (GIS) tools and mobile technology.
• Creating responsive public sector by decentralizing service delivery functions to district level in pursuance of the constitutional mandate to pursue devolution.
• Building strategic policy development and implementation capability, foster innovations through promoting knowledge sharing, knowledge management, collaborations with academia and private sector, and targeted allocations.
PTI • Implement Civil Service Reforms- Result based Management – Encourage functional specialization – Monetize all civil service benefits & perks
• Provide incentives for high performing civil servants and enable professionals the opportunity of working in the Government
• PFC for every province to ensure equal/ non-political distribution of Funds to Districts based on objective laid down criteria
• A DFC for every District to ensure equal distribution of funds to Tehsils & villages
• Decentralize governance and empower communities for generation economic activity at the grass roots level
• Railway Ministry to be abolished – Railway to work under independent, fully autonomous board without government interference – Railways to be back on track within 12 months.
• PIA removed from M/o Defence control
• Strategic government institution to manage State Owned Enterprises similar to Malaysia’s Kazanah
• Fully autonomous Boards with mandate to revitalize within 2 years
• CEOs to be appointed by Boards, not PM
• Strengthen & empower SECP, CCP, OGRA, NEPRA to act against: Cartels, Speculators, Hoarders, Gas & electricity thieves
• Protect land and property owners from exploitation by Real Estate Mafia and Qabza groups
• Eliminate culture of specific SROs
MQM • Strict adherence to the principle of merit.
• Transparency and merit in all governmental actions including contracts, awarding of work and recruitment etc.
• Audit of all Secret Funds placed at the disposal of president, prime minister, provincial chief ministers, and ambassadors through Public Accounts Committee.
• Introduction and strict implementation of measures to ensure security of life and property to all citizens irrespective of their cast, creed, colour, religion, sect, gender, political belonging or beliefs so that no innocent person is victimized and every aggrieved gets justice.
• Appointment of honest and dedicated government officers and public representatives to head federal and provincial Ombudsman and Accountant General offices, anti-corruption departments, public accounts committees, prime minister’s and chief minister’s monitoring committees to make these institutions more efficient and effective. 
ANP • Ensure Parliament / Parliamentary Committees role in stringent accountability of the executive and in nominations and endorsements of senior level positions especially ambassadors, judges of the superior judiciary, chairperson and members of commissions and boards of public corporations etc.
• Efforts shall be made to narrow the difference in salaries between the highest and lowest paid government employees so as to reach an optimal ratio of 5:1. Salaries, benefits and minimum wage shall be indexed to the cost of living.
• Contracting the services of retired government servants shall, as a rule, not be allowed. Where it is essential, in the public interest, written reasons shall be given and these shall be justifiable.
• Rationalize defence expenditures to levels which do not jeopardize economic and social welfare of the people of Pakistan.
• Moreover, it will ensure that the services of trained personnel of the armed forces like doctors, teachers, and engineers, skilled and semi-skilled workers shall be utilized for productive purposes whenever and wherever required and these services shall be performed on a non-profit basis.
PML-Q • Establish a special Ministerial-Level triple Task Force for combining ideas, initiatives and implementation.
• Support establishment of think-tanks in political parties represented in Parliament to find ideas and solutions to problems.
  Police Reform
PPPP • Promote a merit-based system, increase transparency and eliminate existing structural challenges within the police force.
• Establish a police college for federal and provincial police officers, to serve as a centre of excellence in developing and enhancing skills.
• Create incentives for former UN peacekeepers to serve in the national police force.
• Assess the Citizens-Police Liaison Committee (CPLC) model for extension to other parts of the country, and review the need for a Public Safety Commission.
• Encourage the computerization of police records and the close interaction of police with institutions such as NADRA to aid crime prevention and detection.
• Ensure larger numbers of women in police force; make police sensitive to community needs, especially in cases related to women and children.
• Transform juvenile detention centres into facilities that are compliant with Pakistan’s domestic laws and international conventions.
PML- N • All appointments in Police in BPS-11 and above will be made on merit through Provincial Public Service Commissions on the basis of competitive examinations.
• All police stations shall be converted into Model Police Stations in phase wise approach.
• Forensic investigation capability shall be developed in each district.
• National and provincial databases of criminals shall be built in coordination with NADRA.
• All SHOs and public dealing staff will be trained in people skills.
• Police and intelligence agencies cooperation shall be improved to prevent crimes and terrorism.
PTI • Police to be rid of political pressure and completely depoliticized.
• Recruitment strictly on merit followed by rigorous training.
• Police investigation to be made mandatory in cognizable and non-cognizable cases.
• Complainant to register FIR by making a phone call to a Police Station.
MQM • Police service to be restructured and strengthened into a people owned service.
• The revived Sindh Police Act of 1961 to be amended to incorporate concepts of the district Public Safety Commission and Police Complaint Commission. This would act as a deterrent to the police excesses if any, in a participatory democracy.
• Build a self-reliant Police service, a comprehensive policy be drawn to create a service-oriented law enforcement agency.
• Civilians need to be provided moral force and the best way to achieve the objective is to introduce and institutionalize “Community Policing” under the aegis of Local Government. The community police then shall connect with the neighbourhoods through a “Neighbourhood Watch and Ward System”.
• Inter ethnic, inter sectarian & inter political parties community based committees to meet regularly at Police station and town levels to discuss and sort out issues relevant to improving Law & Order situation and promote peace and harmony amongst the citizens. 
ANP Police will be required to operate within the rule of law.
Police reform will focus on evolving a community oriented service.
The procedure & registration of FIR shall be made easier and filling of false FIRs will be punished severely. N
PML-Q --
  Local Govt Reform
PPPP • Will devolve power to the grassroots, forging public consensus on the framework of local governments across the breadth of the country.
PML- N • Local Government elections shall be held within six months of general elections.
• Ensure that the new laws providing for a new local bodies system in replacement of the 2002 system are adopted by consensus and that they provide for optimum devolution and decentralization of administrative and financial powers
PTI • Create a bottom up system by focusing on the Community and rural governance will start with the village.
• Each village will be governed by an empowered village council, which will be responsible for providing services and will have funds, recurring and development, for its functions.
• Village councils will also have Alternate Dispute Resolution mechanism backed by law.
• Oversight committee of village council will oversee functioning of Health units, schools, police stations, revenue, irrigation and agriculture departments.
• All governance functions in cities/town will go to the Municipality and the City government will raise independent revenue for city development.
MQM • The devolved Local Government System will provide ways for Urban-Rural integration, wider representation to the weaker section of society such as peasants, farmers, labourers, women and non-Muslims etc and creating unity in diversity.
• The system will have an inherent program of further devolution of power, authority and resources from the District Level to the Taluka / Tehsil / Town and further down to U.C and Ward levels.
• MQM wants Local Government to become engines of growth by entrusting them responsibilities and functions of, Socio-Economic & Human Resource Development, promoting Investments, building Infrastructures of mega scale and energy manufacture and development besides their traditional role of looking after Municipal Services.
• MQM style Local Government will undertake Power Projects and Mass Transit Program in important cities of Pakistan..
• MQM will preferably devolve all schools and colleges up to Intermediate to the Local Government System from the province. The Town level hospitals will also be devolved to the District & Town Governments.
• MQM proposes to have an affective system of community Policing supported by a neighbourhood watch & ward system under its Local government to combat the menace of crime, violence and terrorism.
• Creation of a single administrative agency in every city/district under the City / District Mayor to solve problems, like water, sewerage, solid waste, power supply, master planning, land usage and allocation, health, and education etc.
• Transfer of traffic administration in all metropolitan cities from police to City/District Government.
• Introduction of large environment friendly buses in all districts and rapid mass transit in private sector dovetail with the overall city/district transport system with a regulatory board under the Mayor.
• Providing security to life and property to all and elimination of criminal dens etc. through local policing.
• Steps must be taken to ensure supply of safe drinking water to each and every citizen of Pakistan.
• Allocate resources to deal with rapid urbanization in Pakistan. Infrastructure development and industrialization must take place in all parts of Pakistan so that people could find opportunities for professional education, jobs, and businesses as close to their home as possible.
• Allocation of sufficient funds for sewage treatment before it goes into sea/river.
• Encourage and invest in low cost housing schemes in urban areas.
ANP • Support and strengthen the Local government system and ensure increase of women’s seats.
PML-Q --
  Corruption & Accountability
PPPP • Introduce further governance and transparency reforms in the areas of taxation and public management including civil services, government procurements and decentralization.
• Introduce a culture of accountability in the delivery of public services by setting metrics for performance, and it will strengthen the Ombudsman’s office.
PML- N • All holders of public offices will be required to file statements of assets and liabilities prior to assuming office and every year thereafter, which will be made available to the public and the concerned authorities for scrutiny.
• Amend laws/rules to withdraw all discretionary powers wherever possible / practical.
• Freedom of Information Act will be passed in consultation with media and other stakeholders.
• ‘Whistle-blower’ protection law (public interest disclosure) will be enacted for providing safeguards to persons who expose corruption, wrongdoing and other illegalities.
• Procurement Laws and Rules will be strengthened, requiring all public sector organizations to publish all tenders and related bidding documents online, post their development/ procurement budgets on their websites, along with details of expenditure over one million rupees.
• Strengthening & strict enforcement of existing laws relating to land-grabbing and encroachments to deter/ punish ‘kabza mafia’.
PTI • NAB to have its own investigative arm outside the purview of the Executive – take up all mega scandals of past & present
• Special Task Force to recover looted national wealth stashed outside the country
• All recovered assets of corruption to be used for educating the youth 
MQM • Establish provincial organization on the pattern of Federal NAB at provincial headquarters. Grant both Federal and Provincial Bureaus, autonomy and assured of tenure assignment like public service commissions.
• Reclaim all properties made through corrupt practices and looting the national exchequer and use the proceeds to build schools, colleges, hospitals etc.
• Public Procurement Laws should be followed in letter and spirit and should not be allowed to be tinkered with. No exemptions be allowed to eliminate corruption in awarding contracts worth millions and billions.
• All discretionary powers under various laws needs to be withdrawn like allotment of precious land at throw away prices, mass employment in violation of merit, withdrawal of posts from the purview of public service commission, non implementation of the findings of public accounts committees, plea bargaining with the corrupt and writing off the so-called bad debts by causing wrongful gains to defaulters.
ANP • The elimination of bribery and corruption, black-marketing, smuggling and other social evils shall be given the top-most priority and a permanent, independent authority shall be established to enforce accountability’.
• Land grabbing in Gwadar and other parts of Balochistan, Karachi and elsewhere will be dealt with firmly and Provincial resources will be developed in accordance with the will of the people.
PML-Q • Anti-corruption Task Force shall be established to prevent corruption.
• Focus on eliminating corruption in large state owned enterprises by plugging loopholes.
• Offering or receiving of bribery or any gratification shall be declared as cognizable offence.
• Effective financial controls shall be introduced in government departments.
• Freedom of information Act shall be liberalized and fully enforced to bring about a change in the behavior of govt servants.
• PAC shall be strengthened.
• A Central Vigilance Commission shall be constituted to create awareness about the consequences of corruption
• Anti-corruption hotlines shall be established in PM & CM offices.
  Media/Access to Information
PPPP • Enact effective Freedom of Information law.
• Endeavour to implement the Wage Board Award for newspaper employees.
• Work with private media companies to provide security and safeguards for working journalists.
• Set up a media city and university in Islamabad to train and educate media professionals in the highest journalistic standards.
• Work towards reforming Pakistan Press Council legislation to strengthen this important forum for media accountability.
PML- N • Law to curb harassment of media shall be enacted.
• A comprehensive insurance scheme shall be introduced to cover journalists against death and injury due to harassment in discharge of professional duties.
• Fund for training of journalists shall be established.
• PTV/PBC shall be made autonomous bodies.
PTI • Abolish Ministry of Information
• PBC & PTV would be autonomous with their own BOG to be appointed by Government
• External publicity to go back to M/o Foreign Affairs
• Govt advertisement will not be used as a tool to harass the independent media
• Press Information Department would be used to disseminate information about Pakistan, not be a tool for government propaganda.
• Abolish the culture of secrecy.
• Frame ‘Right to Information law’ at Federal & Provincial level.
• Allocate resources and build public sector capacities to implement RTI laws.
• Timely production of budget processes and ensuring public access to key budget documents.
• Ensure public access to government records.
• All information except those withheld by a Parliamentary Committee will be accessible to public after 30 years of document’s creation.
MQM • Aspire for a robust, creative, responsible and developing media industry, combining commercial success and public service.
• Reinforcement of independence of non-governmental regulatory authorities: The media regulatory authorities should be free from government control, completely independent and should be mandated with sensible rules and fair regulations that cannot be used as a political tool.
• Legislation should be made to ensure the security of media personnel, they should be provided with life insurance and adequate training, especially for those who are covering the conflict zones and PEMRA should be held responsible and ensuring the implementation of the above. 
ANP • Freedom of association and of speech shall be guaranteed, as shall the freedom of and right to information in letter and spirit.
• Committed to freedom of expression and right to information and communication.
• Bring transparency in blocking and censorship policies.
• Legislate to ensure right to information and communication.
• Facilitate Provincial governments in setting up and running Provincial television channels and radio stations independently.
PML-Q • Will legislate a Protection of Journalist Bill to ensure their safety.
• Form a Special Parliamentary Committee to address all legitimate interests and concerns of media.
• Launch comprehensive insurance policy for Journalists. 
Economy
  Macroeconomic 
PPPP • Maintain macroeconomic stability to foster pro-poor growth.
• Ensure that inflation is kept at 6–8%.
• Aim to raise average growth rate to 6% by 2016 and 8% by 2018.
PML- N • Revive the economy to double GDP growth from current less than 3% to 6% during the next 5 years.
• Inflation will be brought down to single digit - 7 or 8%, by limiting government borrowing; decreasing tax rates; reducing energy shortage and cost of producing energy; lower interest rates through effective monetary policy; removing supply side bottlenecks through increased agricultural output and reduced wastages.
• Pakistan Business and Economic Council shall be established, chaired by the Prime Minister, with equal membership of public and private sector for monitoring performance of economy
• National Economic Agenda 2025 will be developed with consensus for continuity of policies.
PTI • Declare a five point emergency for turning around the economy; its components would be Energy sector reform; Institutional reform; Expenditure reform; Revenue collection reform; and Human capital Development
MQM • Improve governance of PSEs like PIA, Steel Mills, Railways, PEPCO etc. with assistance of Private Sector in PPP mode;
• Recall and reclaim all bad/unpaid loans issued in last 65 years by ignoring nationally and internationally accepted fiscal safeguards and were never returned or partially returned
• Assigning greater role to overseas Pakistanis in fast & sustainable economic development of Pakistan e.g. creating Public Private Partnership models with IT Parks, Industrial Zones, and Technology Cities, and low cost Housing Schemes etc.
• Effective measures to bring back looted/ plundered national wealth worth of billions of US Dollars, taken out of Pakistan.
ANP --
PML-Q • Strive to achieve 6% GDP growth rate in the first year of government.
• Monetary policy of SBP shall be revised to control and prevent inflation.
• Bank rate policy, cash reserve ratio and open market operations shall be rationalized.
  Fiscal policy
PPPP • Reduce government borrowing from State Bank; work on a balanced monetary and fiscal policy, lower the budgetary deficit by 2017 to less than 4 per cent of GDP, and keep our debt within 60 per cent of GDP..
• Rationalize subsidies in favour of the poor
• Make military budgets accountable to Parliament, and institutionalize better oversight of defence expenditure.
PML- N • Budget Deficit will be brought down to 4%.
• One-third reduction in current expenditures other than salaries, allowances and pensions.
• Revamping/ privatization of State Enterprises to reduce losses of Rs. 400 billion 
PTI • Expenditure Emergency- begin at the top – all PM house, Governor houses to be shut down and converted to places of public use
• Expense of President House to be cut by half
• CM camp offices to be restricted to one
• Reduce number of Federal Ministries to 17
• Limit perks of Ministers, MNAs, MPAs, & civil & military bureaucrats
• Abolish policy of free and subsidized plots
• All state institutions including Defense to participate in expenditure reduction
• Eliminate all discretionary funds
• No development funds for Parliamentarians 
MQM • Reduction of Federal Government expenditures due to devolution and austerity measures; including reduction of Non-Development expenditures. 
ANP • Review government expenditures so that inefficiency, waste and corruption is eliminated and transparency and accountability ensured.
• Adhere to fiscal responsibility and debt limitation act.
• Maintain credit worthiness.
• Diversify borrowing by investing in both short and long term securities
• Top priority would be given to payment of expensive debts to make the overall burden manageable.
• Write off or reschedule payments to improve the repayment problem.
• Domestic savers and foreign investors would be encouraged to invest in the country..
• State corporations will be made more efficient, transparent and corruption within these institutions will be dealt with severely
• Rationalize defence expenditures to levels which do not jeopardize economic and social welfare of the people of Pakistan.
PML-Q • Aggressive action will be taken to re-structure PSE’s failing which the feasibility for privatization will be examined.
  Revenue
PPPP • Raise tax-to-GDP ratio to 15% by 2017.
• Increase revenues by bringing tax-evading elite into tax net and rationalize the tax regimes for direct and indirect taxes.
• Put in place a well-functioning, transparent, equitable, effective & simple tax system.
• Every sector of economy to contribute to revenue pool, including agriculture, stock market, real estate, trade, manufacturing and the services sector.
• Revenue leakages through exemptions, loopholes, evasion and under-reporting will be curbed with strict compliance requirements and an effective auditing system.
PML- N • Tax to GDP ratio to increase from present 9% to 15% by the end of 2018.
• Tax all income and achieve greater equity in the tax system by increasing dependence on direct taxes.
• Broad base the tax system through greater use of IT data base.
• Reduce Tax evasion by facilitating tax payers’ compliance, and rationalizing tax rates.
• Reform of tax administration both at the federal and provincial levels.
• An annual tax directory will be published indicating the taxes paid and assessed in the last 3 years.
• No increase in the tax rates. Once the tax system becomes fully operational, tax rates will be reduced over a period of time to ensure regional equity and to encourage foreign investment.
• Provincial governments will be asked to increase their own tax revenues to increase their contribution in overall taxation.
• Sales tax to be rationalized by ensuring standard rate for all items and broadening its scope.
• Steps will be taken to ensure elimination of money laundering and whitening of black money.
• Reduce the number of federal and provincial taxes.
• Improve the process of self-assessment and audit compliance.
• A regulatory duty will be levied on non essential imports.
PTI • Make FBR fully autonomous – insulate from political influence – eliminate pressure for lucrative postings.
• GOP to make tax policy, FBR to implement independently
• Use technology and increase transparency to fight leakages
• Operationalize access to information laws to empower citizens to join the fight against corruption
• Raise revenue by ensuring tax collection without raising tax rates – minimum assets tax adjustable against income tax – All income to be taxable whether agriculture, real estate, stock market etc.
• End ‘soft’ amnesty schemes
• Reduce tax rates once the reform measures are in place
• Provincial govts to play their due role – state takes over under-declared property
• End to Benami transactions
• Agriculture Tax from large landowners
• GST on services
• Give evaders time to declare and the apply full force of law. 
MQM • No representation without taxation.
• MQM proposes to introduce tax on agriculture income through necessary constitutional amendment.
• Reducing the incidence of indirect taxes and such levies to provide relief to a common man. 
ANP • Increase Tax to GDP ratio to a minimum of 15%.
• To increase the tax base the party shall impose taxes that tap the wealth and incomes of the rich rather than burden the less well to do.
• Direct tax net will be increased to 70% and tax collection shall be improved on a priority basis.
• Incomes from all sources should be taxed and any exemptions provided should be abolished. Incomes from agriculture, real estate dealings, defence related businesses, property of defence personnel in cantonments and incomes from speculative markets etc shall be brought in the tax ambit.
PML-Q • Prepare a robust intervention Tax Reforms Strategy which widens the tax net.
• Rationalize tax rates and slabs.
• FBR to be revamped by placing professionals and experts.
• Eliminate exemptions through SROs.
• E-govt to be introduced in FBR and other economic ministries in 5 years.
• Computerization of urban land record and periodic re-evaluation of urban land value to ensure proper recovery of property related taxes & duties.
  Energy/ Power Sector
PPPP • Intend to generate 12000 Mw of electricity by mobilizing new investment of $36 billion through IPPs.
• Prioritize green energy in coordination with provincial governments.
• Provide incentives to private sector for building run-of-the-river hydropower plants on 70 identified hydropower sites, and begin construction on storage dams, especially small dams.
• Introduce an energy conservation bill focusing on energy efficiency.
• Staff NEPRA and OGRA with professionals selected through a transparent process.
• Regulatory decision making will be made transparent to share information and increase public confidence.
• Reduce power tariffs by increasing the use of hydroelectricity and coal in the fuel mix, phasing out furnace oil and diesel, and checking revenue losses in distribution companies.
• Circular debt is to be eliminated with vigilant governance.
• Increase the supply of gas by encouraging exploration in new areas, tapping tight gas and low-BTU gas resources, and promoting the import of LNG.
• Schemes for transnational pipelines will be encouraged.
• Bring transmission losses down to 15 per cent.
PML- N • Ministries of Water & Power and Petroleum & Natural Resources to be merged to create a single Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources
• NEPRA to set upfront/ Feed-in tariffs for wind, solar, small hydel, and biomass projects.
• NEPRA determined tariffs to be the notified tariffs.
• DISCOs to be reformed through corporatization and privatization.
• End to cross subsidy among DISCOs.
• Transmission and Distribution losses to be progressively brought under 10%.
• Collection of electricity bills to be brought as close to 100% of billing as possible.
• Introduction of prepaid billing system to improve bill collection and reducing bad debts.
• GENCOs to be reformed through corporatization and privatization.
• Retrofitting of all equipment to increase thermal efficiency to original specification and where required converting simple cycle plants to combined cycle technology.
• Replacement of all furnace oil boilers by coal fired boilers.
• Permanent elimination of circular debt by narrowly targeting tariff subsidies only to lifeline consumers; notify electricity tariffs according to the average system wide cost; power dispatch to be strictly according to plant efficiency and generation cost; supply gas to all power plants that can run on natural gas; converting all furnace oil-fired power plants to coal-fired boilers; reducing distribution and transmission losses and improving collection rates.
• Rationalization of energy tariffs in line with international prices across all fuels.
• Blanket ban on new CNG stations until the gas crisis is resolved.
• Priority to public transport in the use of CNG.
• Narrowly targeted subsidy for the poor for natural gas and LPG.
• Tariff rationalization in gas sector.
• Aggressive wellhead pricing for Oil and Gas exploration companies in order to substantially increase production of oil and gas.
• High priority to import gas through pipelines.
• Expeditious setting up of coal and LNG import terminals, and coal transportation facilities.
• Development of Thar coalfields and setting up of at least 5,000 MW of new coal fired power plants under the IPP mode in Sindh.
• Develop consensus for setting up hydropower projects.
• Setting up national energy efficiency standards.
• Introducing solar-thermal water heaters for domestic and industrial use.
PTI • Resolve Circular Debt through moving to lower cost production
• Divert all resources to maximizing energy production
• Bring load shedding to manageable proportions urgently
• Initiate PTI medium term Energy plan to reduce Cost of Generation and Line losses etc
• Electricity & Gas shortages to be eliminated within PTI’s first term of government
MQM • Drastically improve management of power, oil & gas sector by inducting professionals on merit to head the organizations. 
• Re-prioritize the use of Natural Gas amongst different categories of its consumers. Power Plants should get preference over Fertilizer Plants. So that the existing Power Plants generate electricity to their Installed capacity.
• Immediately undertake projects for supply of gas and electricity from Iran, Qatar & Central Asian states.
• Fast track installation of LNG plants. Also remove bottlenecks in the import of LNG.
• Review of CNG Policy and CNG prices rationalized with petrol and oil prices in a gradual manner so that CNG sector has an opportunity to diversify itself.
• Enhancing the speed of exploration work of oil and gas drilling. Look for new resources of fuel on priority basis.
• Renovating & desilting Tarbela & Mangla Dam on war footing basis.
• Completing the projects of construction of all small and medium sized Dams, as early as possible.
• Upgrading all the existing Thermal Power Plants to increase their efficiencies and generation.
• Work with a missionary zeal to explore the sources of Alternate Energy such as Wind energy, Solar energy & Thermal Energy, through the use of modern technology, indigenized by Local Expertise.
ANP • Ensure large scale investment in energy sector in collaboration with the Provincial governments to kick start the development of hydel power, gas and oil and other sources of energy in the country.
• Alternate sources of energy including coal, run of the river, solar and wind shall be explored.
PML-Q Energy needs to be Top Priority
Ministry of Energy will be created.
All resources to be utilized to make Pakistan energy efficient country in 5 years.
Ensure one-off settlement of Circular Debt and ensure it does not recur.
Prepare a long term water reservoir plan.
Merit based appointments in electricity companies.
Explore all avenues of enhancing generation capacity to overcome load-shedding within one year.
A commercially viable power tariff structure shall be developed.
Ensure supply of natural gas to domestic commercial and industrial consumers.
  Industry, Investment & Trade
PPPP • Duty & tax exemption on all capital goods imported for development and maintenance of SEZs.
• Provide a 10-year tax exemption on accruable income.
• Allow Zone enterprises to be exempt from customs duties on all capital goods imported for production
• Encourage manufacturing sector to increase exports with the aim of doubling our exports by 2017. 
• Continue to support the Expo Pakistan annual exhibition, and promote new initiatives to attract international buyers to Pakistan.
• Establish more centres of learning and excellence for industries with export potential.
• Provide the necessary support to the PHDEP to find new markets for more fruit varieties.
• Support the establishment of centres of learning, such as the Pakistan Institute of Fashion Design (PIFD), to tap into new international markets and trends, and help promote our vibrant culture abroad.
• Link trade and industrial policy with monetary policy
• Protect investors’ rights, enhance physical security and protect intellectual property rights
• Create special economic zones (SEZs) to facilitate FDI
PML- N • Industrial manufacturing will be taken up to 7 or 8%.
• Investment GDP ratio will rise to 20%.
• All exports will be sales tax free.
• A Technology Up-gradation Fund will be created to support new investments in priority sectors.
• Establish an Equity Fund through private and public sector organizations to facilitate local companies through acquisitions of overseas brands/brand holding companies.
• Industrial parks will be developed and expanded, particularly in the under-developed areas.
• Clusters will be developed for industries such as gems and jewelry, leather, garments, fans, cutlery, halal meat, sports goods, furniture, crockery and cooking utensils.
• An Export-Import bank (EXIM) will be set up to deal exclusively with finances related to the export of capital goods and other manufactured items, consultancy and technological services
involving deferred payment terms.
• MNC’s in Pakistan will be encouraged to expand their production facilities, to cater for Central Asian, South Asian and Middle Eastern Markets as well.
• Investment strategy will be focused on encouraging buyers driven FDI using Pakistan as a base to manufacture products for exports. 
PTI • Developing industrial infrastructure and estates with basic industrial facilities in every district
• Rural industrialization focused on cottage industry/ micro enterprises through the village devolution model
• Reduce demand and supply gap of labor by alignment of skills and education with industrialization
• Formalize the role of Government as facilitator ensuring strategic and institutional initiatives.
• Promotion of SMEs through finance support systems, technology and market linkages.
• Initiate institutional initiatives such as setting up business support organizations. Reorganizing and liberating small industries/ enterprises from the control of bureaucracy and politicians.
• Target to sustain industry growth at 9% in the next five years by resolving the energy crisis and providing modern rail, road and ports infrastructure.
• Industrial policy will focus on SMEs and agro based industry.
• Special focus will be given to the existing industrial clusters to improve their global competitiveness through value addition.
• Increase exports through domestic reform focusing on infrastructure development
• Increase productivity and product diversification in addition to creation of trade corridors and EPZs.
• Encourage foreign investment in order to increase exports using the Indian and Chinese models.
• Pursue a policy of price competitiveness, with regard to Pakistan’s exports, by maintaining an appropriate fiscal and tariff rationalization policy.
• Create an effective regime of Export Promotion measures as opposed to financial subsidies.
• Design online customs mechanisms to reduce transaction costs, whilst encouraging digital signatures, procedural simplifications, and accountability of export processing personnel.
• Provide protection against unfair trade practices through National Tariff Commission.
• Enhance market access in the developed world whilst prioritizing regional and south-south trade.
MQM • Equal concentration on manufacturing as well as light and heavy industries to create a robust and sustainable industrial sector. It is imperative that stake holders from private sector are fully facilitated for the establishment of industrial estates.
• Spread the net of cottage industries throughout the country. Also to increase the number of women industrial homes to provide an opportunity to learn skills to enhance their living standards and support their families.
• Encourage and deploy a public-private partnership mode to encourage investment and realize hidden opportunities.
• Ensure introduction and smooth running of one-window operation.
• Creation of an industrial-based economy with reasonable wage structure, provision of health care insurance, old age benefits, disability pension and a housing unit after retirement to the low income employees both in public and private sector.
• Provide incentives to small and cottage industries including easy credit and land allotments.
• Promotion of organized Micro-finance Sector in Urban Centres also, venture capital financing, cooperative farming, agricultural reforms, small medium enterprises SMEs, labor intensive and value addition industries etc
• Immediate steps to eliminate recurring power load shedding for industrial units.
• Drastic cut on imports of non-essential goods;
• Reducing abuse of Afghan Transit Trade, under invoicing and curbing smuggling in Pakistan
ANP • Accelerate large scale industrial development. Investment will be promoted especially in industries based on oil and gas, water and power and alternate energy sources.
• Encourage investment in extraction and polishing of marble, gemstones and
mineral processing.
• Special emphasis will be laid on food preservation and processing industry so as to increase the incomes of fruit and vegetable farmers.
• Reduce trade deficit to a sustainable level and make special efforts to boost the country’s exports and remittances.
• Trade deficit would be reduced mainly through reducing the existing trust deficit and improving quality standards.
• Expand regional trade in particular with Afghanistan. At least ten more roads and rail links will be built to enhance bilateral trade with Afghanistan.
• Invest in different traditional crafts in the socio economically backward areas of the country to enable workers to create employment for themselves.
• Expand the share of manufacturing sector from the present 19% of the GDP to almost 30% within the next 10 years.
• Reduce trade deficit to a sustainable level and make special efforts to boost the country’s exports and remittances.
• Encourage and protect foreign investment and offer special incentives in this regard.
PML-Q • Develop fully equipped industrial estates for revival of industrial growth.
• Activate ‘one window facility’.
• Improve the system of industrial credit and enable land owners to borrow funds on the basis of the market value of agricultural land and rural property.
  Financial sector
PPPP • Target an annual 2 billion increase in remittances
• Realign banking sector to concentrate on core activities and lending to the private sector.
• Resume the role of the government as a ‘price setter’ rather than a ‘price taker’ in the credit market.
• Aim to develop a more robust and focused strategy to meet the needs of SMEs.
• Incentivize the use of the formal financial system to increase the deposit-to-GDP ratio through prudent regulations.
• Develop a long-term yield curve, revamp recovery laws and introduce market-oriented reforms to improve lending to the private sector.
• Lower the cost of doing business
PML- N • Undertake further reforms in line with current domestic and global trends and in continuation of far reaching reforms in the banking sector carried out in 1990’s.
PTI --
MQM --
ANP --
PML-Q • Introduce Islamic Banking & Finance,  on a gradual basis
  Small & Medium Enterprises
PPPP • Encourage the setting up of business support services.
• Improve corporate governance through stronger financial and corporate discipline.
• Create provincial- and national-level training centres which will provide nationally recognized and certified courses.
• Leverage SMEDA for creating linkages between SMEs and big business.
• Direct the State Bank of Pakistan (SBP) to provide directed credit limits.
• Work with donors to create debt funds and equity for this sector.
PML- N • Covered under ‘Industry’ & ‘Employment’
PTI • Encourage setting up of Business Support Services in private sector for guidance of small entrepreneurs
• Creation of linkages between SMEs & large businesses
• Provision of financial assistance to SMEs through improved financial institutions
• SME lending & development to be included in curriculum in Business schools & elsewhere
MQM • (Covered under ‘Industry/ Investment’)
ANP --
PML-Q --
  Labour
PPPP • Legislate to give labour representatives 4 seats in National and 2 seats in each provincial assembly.
• Address post-18th Amendment issues and strengthen our position in ILO. Ratify all ILO conventions.
• Pass Trade Unions Act to address difficulties and anomalies in industrial relations laws.
• Constitute a powerful Commission to ensure implementation of labour laws, labour policy and ILO conventions. Construct labour housing complexes in federal & provincial capitals, and set up labour committees at the district level to resolve labour difficulties and disputes.
• Enhance shares up to 25 per cent under the Benazir Employees Stock Option Scheme (BESOS) and legislate for the removal of section 27B of the Banking Companies Ordinance 1962.
• Promote registration of workers, including agriculture and general workers, in trade unions and improve  functioning of WWF.
• Expand the scope of labour laws to cover FATA, PATA, GB, and AJK.
• Frame laws to safeguard employment and service conditions, enforce occupational health and safety measures, and promote human resource development.
• Further enhance the minimum wage to 18,000 rupees per month, with the wage rate to be adjusted for inflation.
• The Committee on Labour in provincial assemblies will oversee working of Social Security, EOBI, WWF and will have the power to decide on complaints and petitions.
• Enact special laws for home-based and domestic workers to establish trade unions, provide social security and a decent wage, and to end the exploitation of workers by middlemen and employers.
• Set up special fair-price cooperative shops within the premises of large industrial units for workers to buy monthly rations equivalent to their wages.
• Make maximum resources available for the education and health of workers’ children.
• Promote public–private partnership-based labour colonies to provide workers with housing units and community facilities.
• Provide special incentives, including free of cost land and bank credit, to private-sector units for the construction of housing colonies for their workers. No new unit employing more than 50 workers will be sanctioned unless a housing colony for workers is included.
• Increase women’s participation in workplace; secure their rights by enforcing anti discrimination and anti-harassment legislation.
• Support institutional efforts to prevent child labour; rehabilitate child labourers; and ensure elimination of child labour practices.
• Promote initiatives to check bonded labour practices and the incidence of internal and external human trafficking, and strengthen law enforcement responses
PML- N • Labour laws will be revised to ensure justice to all parties and to improve working relations and overall growth.
• ‘Tripartite National and Provincial Productivity Council’ and ‘National Health & Safety Council’ will be set up to raise and develop “productivity” and “preventive safer culture” in the country through joint efforts of the Government, Employer and Workers.
• Ensure “Decent Work” for the national work force by ensuring fair wage and safe working condition to prevent accidents and occupational diseases at work place and provision of social protection.
PTI • Implementation of profit sharing system
• Repeal of repressive labour laws and bringing them in line with International Labour Conventions
• Extension of labour laws to labor hired under ‘thekedari system’.
• Revamping of social security institutions
• Representation for working classes in national & provincial assembles
• Improved vocational training opportunities for labor. 
MQM • Establishment of joint monitoring boards of entrepreneurs and labour within industrial units to ensure respectable wage structure for employees.
• Ensure meaningful consultation with trade unions of employees before privatization of public assets. 
ANP • A comprehensive package of economic, social and legal measures shall be proposed to protect workers, labour rights and interests.
• Continue to support trade unions and review and amend any laws that restrict formation or working of trade unions.
• Ensure protection of rights of workers employed in the informal sector including safe working environment and employment benefits.
• Ensure workers access to improved health care, education, skills development and holidays.
• Revise and facilitate implementation of labour laws to ensure safe and secure working environment in both formal and informal sectors.
• Regularly review and set minimum wage and workers benefits comparable to cost of living and inflation rates.
PML-Q • The minimum wage of workers will be periodically increased.
• IRO 2012 shall be reviewed to bring more clarity to it.
• EOBI & other welfare programmes will be strengthened.
• Ensure total prohibition of child labour.
• Law against bonded labour shall be strengthened and enforced. 
  Agriculture & Livestock
PPPP • Establish farmer managed clusters/ cooperatives on land upto 500 acres, which will provide tractors, laser levelers and other implements on rent. Bank will provide soft loans for fertilizer, seeds and pesticide. The cooperatives will be responsible for loan repayment.
• Introduce a flat electricity rate for tube wells, especially in areas where groundwater is the only source of irrigation.
• Set up agriculture markets at tehsil/taluka level, with storage facilities on public–private partnerships. Storage receipts would be usable for making purchases.
• Encourage local manufacturing of drip irrigation systems and promote the lining of all water channels. Schemes for solar powered tube well will be developed throughout the country.
• Announce agriculture policy at the beginning of every year, fixing the support price of wheat, rice, sugarcane and cotton, and specifying subsidies on inputs.
• The pricing of agricultural commodities will take into account the cost of inputs, marketing, distribution, transportation, communication, land, labour and credit. In addition, we will maintain a check on fertilizer prices through a regulatory body which will include agriculturists.
• Provide agricultural subsidies at par with those in other countries in the region, and devise mechanisms for public–private partnerships to fund subsidies for local farms.
• Legislative & administrative action to check the widespread contamination of pesticides, fertilizer and other agricultural inputs.
• Ensure increased allocations of credit from ZTBL. Seek increased provision of credit from the SBP, and ensure adequate availability of credit for the financing of agricultural implements including tractors.
• Continue to provide land to landless peasants and subsistence farmers with the eventual intent to create a network of small farm cooperatives. All newly irrigated state land/ reclaimed land will be reserved for landless/ subsistence level holdings.
• Increase allocations for research and development for seed improvement, pest control, fertilizers, pesticides, soil analysis and water management.
• There will be no indirect taxation on the agriculture sector by paying less than market prices for agricultural produce.
• Introduce policy incentives to promote agro-industry in rural areas.
• Legalize title deeds for agricultural lands to be used as collateral to obtain credit and other benefits.
• Address as a priority the issue of propriety rights over military farmland in towns across the country and safeguard the legitimate interests of tenants, peasants and workers.
• Establish new women-owned livestock cooperatives equipped with chillers and linked to dairy products manufacturers.
• Launch Peoples Agriculture Programme for farmers with less than 25 acres. 
• Crop yields will be increased and agricultural output and revenues will be stabilized.
PML- N • Turn agriculture into a fully-viable economic industry changing the policy framework and terms of trade in favor of agriculture
• Focus on small farmers as the real back-bone of the rural economy
• Give high priority to development of the livestock sector and self sufficiency in oilseeds. Revitalize corporate agriculture by setting up land development corporations with majority equity of the poor and managed by professional managers.
• Reform the agriculture credit system to ensure that at least 50% of the total is provided to small farmers on the basis of the market value of the land rather than outdated produce index units. High priority to women borrowers in micro credit programmes.
• Convert Pakistan into a large net exporter of food and high value crops to regional markets by modernizing post-harvest storage and marketing systems.
• Build consensus on the basis of the 1991 Water Accord to allow new water projects to be undertaken and extension of irrigation facilities to additional areas.
• Launch major programme of aquifer recharge in arid and semiarid areas of Cholistan, Thar and Baluchistan.
• Provide incentives for farmers to adopt social forestry on a commercial scale.
• Undertake immediate updating of revenue and property records using modern Information technology.
• Revamp all agriculture research organizations.
• Modernize agriculture education in general and curriculum of agriculture universities in particular.
• Reclaim and irrigate additional land for allotment to landless, women haris and tenants. Also undertake a land consolidation programme to create viable units for modern agriculture. 
PTI • Agriculture be treated as an Industry with the same amenities and taxes.
• Existing law on agriculture tax to the enforced until further legislation.
• Land records to be computerized and ownership record will be available as a matter of right.
• Laws against eviction of tenants will be strengthened. Minimum period and standards conditions of tenancy will be fixed.
• Increasing agricultural yields and improving efficiency of on-farm use of water and energy.
• Storage facilities and infrastructure will be improved.
• Initiate community livestock programmes for dairy products and meat at the village level;.
• Revamp/ modernize Provincial Agriculture departments, connect them to Universities.
• Development of good and economical GM seeds will be focused.
• Initiate high level political dialogue with India to ensure enforcement Of Indus water Treaty and ensure our lower riparian rights.
• Dialogue with Afghanistan on our water security vis a vis Kabul river flows. 
MQM • Abolishment of the prevailing medieval feudal system from the country.
• MQM is committed to land reforms and will strive for “Redistributive Land Reforms Bill 2010" to be passed by the Parliament.
• Amend the Constitution and impose tax on agriculture income.
• Devise alternate delivery system at the door step of the farmers- quality seed; fertilizer; pesticides; water particularly to tail enders; short term credit and to facilitate for the formation of private cooperative marketing societies to eliminate the role of middleman.
• The land record has to be computerized, despite resistance by the patwaries/tapedars and land mafia who mint money by the manipulation of records.
• Resolve the woes of the haris-cultivators and save them from the clutches of landlords/zamindars and government functionaries. This needs drastic amendments, including establishment of Hari Courts, under Sindh Tenancy Act, 1950.
• Curb illegal practice of establishing private jails for forced labour, frequent ejection of haris, and treatment of the womenfolk and children of cultivators as chattels by the zamindar. In this connection Domestic Violence Act needs amendments.
• Government procurement on wheat/ sugar cane on support price be restricted to small khatedars and not from middlemen and big zamindars.
• Commodities should not be procured in excess of the available storage capacity.
• Wheat/ refined sugar should not be exported unless the next crops arrive in the market.
• Town dwellers affected by the increase in price of atta (wheat flour) be given subsidy to mitigate the effect.
• The rural dwellers be provided loans by the House Building Corporation on the same terms and condition and ceiling limit as provided to urban dwellers.
• Producers of livestock and fisheries be encouraged and facilitated.
• Increase share of cultivators (harees /muzareh) from 50 % to 60 %.
• Introduction of district level micro finance credit on the pattern introduced and followed by Grameen Bank of Bangladesh.
• Subsidies on purchase of tractors and small agriculture machinery
• Allocation of State land to landless cultivators followed by the cooperative farming, cooperative marketing and easy credit for the inputs.
• Declaring peasants (harees/muzareh) as labour and legislation on the pattern of labour laws for them, to stop ejection of tenants at will.
• Promotion and incentives for agro-based industries in rural areas.
• Construction of dams may be undertaken even at small scale to conserve the water and or to generate electricity by artificial water-falls. Growers committees be formed to evolve warabandi formula- distribution of water on equitable, area and crop basis.
• Substantial allocation will be made to control salinity and water logging.
• Stringent measures against non-payment of prescribed water charges by influential landlords.
• Expert advice be provided to farmers for improving per acre yield and the knowledge about which crop to be harvested during different times of a year.
• Each province should draw a Provincial Policy on Agriculture and Irrigation to optimize the production per acre. 
ANP • Give special attention to Livestock because of its large scale impact on poverty reduction, nutrition and economic growth.
• Take measures to enhance the value of poultry & dairy products for the farmers. Also promote hygienic processing and packaging of poultry and dairy products for export purposes.
• Potential of pastureland will be explored in each Province and exploited to benefit the farmers.
• Incentives will be given for diversification of agriculture into high value cash crops like fruits, vegetables, flowers, edible oil and crops like olives etc.
• Major reforms will be brought to develop wheat, maize and tobacco. Industries based on these products will be developed.
• Modern farming techniques will be introduced especially techniques that help reduce the use of water for irrigation purposes.
• Encourage and invest in agriculture research and development.
PML-Q • Set up private sector service centers at union council level for timely provision of inputs to farmers.
• Ensure that Agriculture sector is allocated at least 15% of Capital disbursed by Banks.
• Export of basic commodities/ livestock will not be restricted.
• Simplify the procedure for Crop insurance claims.
• The budget of Agri research organizations shall be rationalized at 60:40 for operational and research purposes.
• Strengthen the production of pasteurized milk packed in reusable bottles.
• Institute an Electronic Agri Pricing Information System.
• Introduce subsidy for installation of solar energy tubewells.
• Ensure procurement of the entire wheat crop on a timely basis at a fair support price.
• Create Provincial Horticulture Export Boards.
  Privatisation
PPPP --
PML- N • Identify enterprises which need to be privatized and assign targets to the privatization commission to ensure completion of the privatization process within the assigned time frame.
PTI • Revamp & divest non-strategic public sector organizations to local investors
• Strengthening of regulatory institutions to protect interests of consumers
• Transparent & public process on the assets that are to be privatized
• Preference for sale to local investors or through stock exchanges
MQM • Ensure meaningful consultation with trade unions of employees before privatization of public assets. 
ANP --
PML-Q --
  Infrastructure
PPPP • Prioritize large-scale infrastructure programmes to modernize and expand roads, bridges, canals and dams.
PML- N • Develop infrastructure projects through private sector on BOO / BOT basis.
• A Bureau of Infrastructure Development (BID) will be established to coordinate for private sector participation in infrastructure development and develop financing schemes.
PTI • All major cities will have mass transit systems.
• Sustain safe & reliable national highways & motorways network through restructuring of NHA and enforcement of Road Transport Regulations.
• Expand the Railway network to reduce road traffic.
• Develop RFI financing & insurance markets targeting fleet renewal and terminal improvements.
MQM --
ANP • Strive for rehabilitation of natural resources and infrastructure destroyed due to the ravages of terrorism and extremism especially in FATA and Pakhtunkhwa.
PML-Q • Revive Lahore Rapid Mass Transit Scheme.
• Commuters in urban areas to be provided mass transit systems.
• Shuttle bus service linking major industrial cities shall be launched.
  Employment
PPPP • All infrastructure projects will entail compulsory job creation.
• PPAF, Micro Financing Institutions and National & Provincial Rural Support Programmes will play a major role in eradicating poverty and creating jobs by expanding their operations.
• Incentive will be offered to private sector to create maximum employment.
• A specially designed employment program will be launched that will generate jobs at community
and neighborhood level through special development initiatives.
PML- N • National Manpower Plan will be prepared to match the demand and supply of manpower.
• New employment opportunities will be provided to over three million persons in the public and private sectors including 1 million each in IT sector and 1 million in SME sector.
• The minimum wage for workers will be gradually enhanced to Rs. 15,000 per month. Rights of workers will be ensured and collective bargaining will be made more effective in line with ILO Conventions.
• A programme of vigorous industrialization and small and medium enterprises will be undertaken in the urban and rural areas to absorb unemployed labour.
• Employment opportunities for qualified doctors will be provided by constructing more hospitals, extending soft term, easy installment loans to doctors to establish them in private practice; and giving tax concessions for establishment and expansion of private hospitals.
• A programme will be implemented for full absorption of engineers, scientists and other skilled manpower, including a new National Consultancy Policy for greater use of national consultants, strengthening and expansion of existing scientific institutions, creation of new institutes for modern technologies and making it obligatory for the private industrialists to hire adequate expertise in their respective fields.
• Para-medical training institutions for females will be attached to each district and tehsil hospital and facilities for the training of female teachers will be expanded in all districts.
PTI • Skill development Emergency
• Leverage private/public/NGOs for mega skill development programme
• Target 2 million youth in skill development centres at the end of 3 years
• Provide stipends for poor student
• Focus on employable skills and Placement Services to match students and jobs
• Focus on social service delivery providers (paramedics, nurses)
MQM • Bringing down unemployment by encouraging industrialization throughout the country, promoting cottage industries, establishing vocational institutions, and providing incentives to agro-based industries in rural areas.
• Provision of more incentive for labour intensive industries. 
ANP • Committed to youth development and creation of suitable employment opportunities.
• Provide special incentives for youth such as academic scholarships, exchange visits and trainings both nationally and internationally.
• Focus on skills development and vocational training at an early stage.
• Give special emphasis to providing opportunities to youth for creative learning, art and culture, recreation and sports.
• Special attention will be paid to addressing the problem of the educated unemployed. Facilities like internship, placement bureaus and advisory organizations will be provided to help them find jobs. Comprehensive projects for self-employment would also be given a priority.
• Develop a cadre of youth volunteers in each district trained in disaster mitigation and management.
PML-Q • Education Plan for Skills & employability shall be formulated.
• Technical and vocational education shall be included in technical school stream.
• The potential of IT will be harnessed to enhance opportunities for the young.
• Self employment schemes shall be launched.
National Security & Foreign Policy
  Defense & Security 
PPPP • Develop a National Security Plan with the overarching goal of providing safety and security to every citizen.
• Utilize strategic communications as a tool to counter fundamentalist and militant rhetoric.
• Undertake targeted military operations against all militant and terrorist outfits that challenge the writ of the state.
• Accelerate the policy of building a national narrative against religiously motivated violence.
• Prevent Pakistan from being used as a base for terrorist activities.
• Dismantle militant groups that create parallel entities within the state.
• Develop a comprehensive witness protection programme for those providing critical information relating to militants.
• Establish a programme that provides security and protection to judges and legal personnel involved in the prosecution of members of militant organizations.
• Enhance research and intelligence gathering related to key extremist outfits, their operations and their recruitment strategies.
• Encourage interfaith discussion forums where religious scholars from all faiths take a united stand against extremism and religious intolerance.
• Initiate a process of disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR) for any militant group or individual willing to renounce violence.
• Make sure that peace talks are only held with militants provided they renounce violence and recognize the Constitution.
• Ensure that the use of force remains the monopoly of the state.
• Disrupt, with the help of allies, militant networks operating in areas such as Nuristan and Kunar which launch cross-border attacks on Pakistan.
• Continue to convince allies of the counterproductive nature of drone strikes.
• Ensure that our armed forces maintain the highest professional standards so that they earn the love and respect of the nation.
• Encourage closer working relationships between defence and parliamentary institutions for cooperation as well as oversight.
PML- N • A Cabinet Committee on Defense and National Security, to be headed by the Prime Minister and assisted by a Permanent Secretariat, will be established to maintain democratic oversight of all aspects of foreign, defense and national security policies.
• Highest priority to be accorded to strengthening the nation’s defenses. For this purpose, the needs and requirements of Armed Forces would be met, under all circumstances.
• Pakistan’s strategic assets would be protected and improved to ensure strategic parity in the region.
• Ensure that all institutions, whether civil or military, including those dealing with security and/or intelligence matters, act in accordance with the law, and under the instructions and directives of the Federal Cabinet.
• Integration of Tribal Areas into country’s political mainstream, by extending political rights to the tribals.
• Provision of technical training facilities; free health benefits to the disadvantaged classes; setting up small and medium size industrial enterprises in the Tribal Areas that could provide gainful employment  to the youth, making them stake-holders in peace and security of these areas.
• Create an alternate narrative to sustain efforts against terrorism and bring home the message that Islam is a religion of peace and that there is no moral or religious sanction for violence or extremism.
• Eliminate different systems of education in the country. Madrassahs to follow the same syllabi as the government schools.
PTI • Defence and security policy will be made multidimensional to deal with emerging nature of threats, especially the enmeshed internal-external dimensions of the threat of terrorism
• Defence spending will be rationalized and Defence budget debated in Parliament, with in-camera sessions where required.
• Credibility of strategic nuclear deterrence will be sustained.
• Move substantively on the bilateral strategic dialogue with India encompassing all aspects of strategic nuclear deterrence to prevent a spiraling nuclear race in the region.
• Push for principle of non-discrimination in all arms control and disarmament measures.
• Provide security for ordinary citizens so that terrorists are unable to melt into the population and find shelter there.
• Convince militants to lay down their arms and come to the dialogue table. Militants must lay down their arms during the process of talks.
• Address genuine grievances of the people of Balochistan and FATA.
• FATA will be brought into mainstream and FCR removed.
• Implement ‘no to drones’ policy.
• Restore a neutral police force in Karachi with no political connections.
• Counter terrorism policy comprising comprehensive approach aimed towards abolishing the narrative of jihad. Financing channels of militant to be immediately closed.
• Extricate Pakistan from US led war on terror.
• “Insaf economic package’ to rehabilitate affected areas/people.
• Deweaponisation and dissolution of militant wings of political parties.
• NACTA to be made effective.
• Major improvement of criminal justice system and anti-terrorism legislation.
• Enact Witness and Judges protection Act.
• Sources of funding to be made transparent.
• Pakistan’s territory or people including its armed forces will not be allowed to be used by any other nation for the promotion of its political ideology or hegemony, for promoting terrorism or for destabilization of any other state.
MQM • Immediate development of a National Counter Terrorism Policy in consultation with elected representatives, police, bureaucracy and the unified command of armed forces.
• Meaningful changes in the judicial and prosecution system to ensure that people involved in violation of laws are brought to justice.
• Ensuring independence of law enforcement authorities by freeing them from the clutches of political control
• Addressing the root causes of terrorism -poverty, religious extremism, unjust policies- by alleviating poverty and spreading education
• Enactment of legislation for DEWEAPONISATION OF PAKISTAN. Eradication and substantial curtailment of the manufacture, trade, smuggling, import and proliferation of arms, ammunitions, explosives and weapons through a phase-wise plan.
• Launching of a rigorous public awareness campaign in collaboration with citizens and religious scholars to curb religious extremism, hatred, fanaticism and terrorism from the country. 
ANP • Oppose all forms of violations of the country’s sovereignty and integrity.
• Evolve a national consensus to transform the state from a merely security state into a democratically developing welfare state.
• A process for review of the security and foreign policies would be initiated both within the Parliament and outside to enable the transformation of the state.
• Ensure that state implements its writ in FATA and purge it from all sorts of terror networks.
• Evolve a consensus on integration of FATA and PATA in the mainstream, with a comprehensive political, social and economic reform plan.
• Seek negotiations with all those who recognize the writ of the state and renounce violence. However, those who are not prepared to do so will face an effective and meaningful action.
• Review and reform the security policies and strategies to bring it in line with modern security requirements.
• Continue efforts to establish and strengthen rule of law and justice for all.
• Evolve a standard policy for compensation, including a comprehensive public insurance policy, for victims of sectarianism, terrorism and violence. The policy will be extended to FATA where the people have been hardest hit by terrorism and extremism.
• Establish a Martyrs Cell in the Provinces and FATA to ensure well being of the families of the Martyrs of terrorism and extremism.
PML-Q • Redefine National Security to include key civilian components like rule of law, human rights, provincial autonomy, strong economy.
• Involve key stakeholders like Parliament, political parties, judiciary, media, and civil society.
• Pursue zero tolerance policy for any non-state actors using Pakistani territory to plan, organize, train, or launch military attaches against any of Pakistan’s neighbours. 
• Constitute a National Security Council headed by PM and appoint a National Security Advisor.
• Bring the Defense budget within the purview of National Assembly for approval.
• Support building modern & well equipped armed forces functioning within the framework of Constitution.
• Nuclear programme to be safeguarded.
• Put in place an effective Counter Terror Strategy through a lead organization base in PM secretariat.
• Establish a witness protection programme.
• Address the political context which breeds terrorism.
• Recognize that there is no military solution to fight terrorism.
  Foreign Policy
PPPP • Aggressively pursue institutional frameworks for regional cooperation at multiple levels, adding value to new scaffolding for constructing an enduring business, investment, development and infrastructural architecture in the region.
• Enhance strategic partnership with China and strengthen traditionally strong ties with the Islamic world.
• Continue to reshape relationship with Afghanistan based on peace, brotherhood, respect and cooperation. Firm adherence to the principle of supporting our neighbour without meddling in its internal affairs.
• Maintain full solidarity with and continued moral, political and diplomatic support of the Kashmiri people for realizing their legitimate aspirations.
• Further strengthen and deepen relations with the US, with emphasis on market access and enhanced trade opportunities for Pakistan’s exports and FDI.
• Continue to proactively invest in building commercial, social and cultural ties with peoples and states of Central Asia and the GCC, and maintain historical and friendly ties with Turkey and Iran.
• Accord special focus to mutually beneficial Asia-wide cooperation, and associate fully in programmes of SCO, ECO, SAARC, ASEAN and GCC regions.
• Reach out to Japan, South Korea, the ASEAN region, Australia and New Zealand as part of our efforts to bring fresh impetus to our ‘look east’ policy in Asia to build ties based on trade and investment.
PML- N • Formulation and determination of foreign policy to remain the sole preserve of elected representatives. 
• Strengthen relations with proven and time-tested friends and normalize relations where there are differences.
• Strengthen and enhance economic ties with all countries of the world and important international economic blocks, such as the EU, ECO, SAARC, ASEAN and SCO.
• Special efforts will be made to resolve the issue of Jammu and Kashmir, in accordance with the provisions of the relevant UN resolutions and the 1999 Lahore Accord and in consonance with the aspirations of the people of the territory for their inherent right of self-determination.
• Build a cadre of highly competent, dedicated, well-trained professionals to man the Foreign Ministry and our Diplomatic Missions which will be re-oriented towards promotion of economic, commercial and investment policies.
• Full use will be made of think tanks while instituting regular consultations with elected representatives, defense analysts, media personalities and retired diplomats, to take advantage of their experiences and understanding of national security issues.
PTI • Peaceful co-existence with India based on sovereign equality and resolution of outstanding disputes
• Resolutely support Kashmiri freedom struggle
• Establish a new paradigm of mutually beneficial relations with US based on shared interests and common values
• Consolidate relationship with China
• Actively promote ties with Islamic countries, Saudi Arabia, Iran and Gulf states
• Support efforts for return of normalcy in Afghanistan
• Seek improvement of relations with Russia
• Maintain cordiality with Europe
• Seek broader avenues of economic cooperation with ASEAN, Japan, Africa, Latin America
• Seek full membership of SCO
MQM • Pursue an independent foreign policy and promote close, friendly and honourable relations with all countries, especially with the neighbouring countries.
• All the disputes and conflicts be resolved through dialogue and peaceful means.
• Solve the Kashmir issue through meaningful, sincere and honourable dialogue according to the wishes of Kashmiri people.
• MQM encourages confidence building measures (CBMs) and dialogue process with India and desires peace and close cooperation between the countries of South Asia, especially in economic fields so as to provide peace, progress and prosperity to one fifth population of the world living in this region.
ANP • Pursue friendly and peaceful relations with all countries, particularly with neighbours.
• Use of diplomacy as a tool for promoting the country’s economic and trade interests, diversifying its market and attracting foreign investment.
• Special attention to be paid to relations with Afghanistan.
• Establishment of peaceful, cooperative good neighbourly relations with India will be given high priority. All issues including Jammu and Kashmir would be solved through peaceful negotiations and open dialogue.
• Establishment of peaceful and cooperative relations with Iran, Russia and Central Asian republics.
• Traditional close relations with China will be maintained and further developed.
• Strive for normalcy in relations with the United States based on mutual interests and respect as independent and sovereign states. Avoid fluctuating policies that border on extreme reactions of either abject surrender or threats of armed conflict.
• Relations with the European Union will be further developed and strengthened.
• Play a leading and constructive role in the Organization of Islamic Conference, SAARC and ECO.
• Special attention will be paid by our missions abroad to the problems of expatriate Pakistanis, particularly in the Gulf countries and Saudi Arabia where there are many Pakhtun workers.
PML-Q •  Pursue independent foreign policy.
• Support the right of self determination of Kashmiris. Provide full support for their cause.
• Support establishment of independent democratic Palestinian state.
• Support peaceful solution for Afghanistan, through withdrawal of foreign forces and facilitation of dialogue with Taliban.  Afghanistan’s neighbors should be included in the peace process.
• Not to allow Pakistan’s territory to be used against any country nor tolerate interference in its internal affairs.
• Work for regional economic framework for the countries of South Asia, Central Asia and Gulf.
• Support Iran’s peaceful Nuclear Programme under IAEA.
• Execute international treaties to control child trafficking. 

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